࢐ Format Kindle Download @Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West For Free ⢉ Kindle By Tom Holland ⣳

࢐ Format Kindle Download @Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West For Free ⢉ Kindle By Tom Holland ⣳ ࢐ Format Kindle Download @Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West For Free ⢉ Kindle By Tom Holland ⣳ 1The Khorasan Highway Woe to the Bloody CityThe gods, having scorned to mold a world that was level, had preferred instead to divide it into two So it seemed to those who lived in the Zagros, the great chain of peaks which separates the Fertile Crescent from the upland plateau of Iran Yet these mountains, though savage, were not impassable One road did snake across them the most famous in the world, the Khorasan Highway, which led from the limits of the East to the West, and joined the rising to the setting of the sun In places, as it climbed through the Zagros Mountains, winding along river beds, or threading between jagged pinnacles and ravines, it might be little than a footpath but even that, to those who used it, was a miracle enough Only a beneficent deity, it was assumed, could ever have fashioned such a wonder Who, and when, no one really knew for sure, but it was certainly very ancient perhaps, some said, as old as time itself Over the millennia, the Khorasan Highway had been followed by any number of travelers nomads, caravans and the armies of conquering kings.One empire, in particular, for centuries synonymous with cruel and remorseless invincibility, had sent repeated expeditions into the mountains, dyeing the peaks, in its own ferocious vaunt, like wool, crimson with blood 1 The Assyrians, inhabitants of what is now northern Iraq, were city dwellers, a people of the flat, alluvial plains but to their kings, warlords who had spread terror and extermination as far as Egypt, the Zagros was less a barrier than a challenge Themselves the patrons of a proud and brilliant civilization, sumptuous with palaces, gardens and canals, the kings of Assyria had always seen it as their duty to flatten resistance in the wilds beyond their frontiers This, the wilds being what they were, had proved a calling without limit Not even with their incomparable war machine could the Assyrians pacify all the mountain tribes for there were some living in the Zagros who clung to the peaks like birds, or lurked in the depths of thick forests, so backward that they subsisted entirely on acorns, savages hardly worthy of the royal attention These too, however, with regular incursions, could be taught to dread the name of Assyria, and provide her with the human plunder on which her greatness had come increasingly to depend Again and again, punitive expeditions would return from the mountains to their native plains, to the sacred cities of Ashur, Nimrud and Nineveh, while in their wake, naked and tethered, followed stumbling lines of captives Increasingly, the Assyrians had fallen into the habit of moving entire populations, shunting them around their empire, transplanting one defeated enemy into the lands of another, there to live in the houses of the similarly transported, to clear weeds from the rubble, or cultivate the abandoned, smoke blackened fields.These tactics had in the end had due effect By the late eighth century BC, the reaches of the Khorasan Highway had been formally absorbed into the empire and placed under the rule of an Assyrian governor Grovelling they came to me, for the protection of their lives, boasted Assyria s greatest king, Sargon II Knowing that otherwise I would destroy their walls, they fell and kissed my feet 2 Not that captives were the only source of wealth to be found in the Zagros Wild and forested though the mountains were, and often bitter the climate, the valleys were famous for their clover rich pasture Over the centuries, and in increasing numbers, these had been attracting tribes who called themselves Arya Aryans horse taming nomads from the plateau to the east 3 Even once settled, these immigrants had preserved many of their ancestors instincts, filling the valleys of their new homeland with great herds of long horned cattle, and preferring, wherever possible, to live in the saddle The Assyrians, no horse breeders themselves, would speak in wondering terms of the stud farms of the Zagros, with their numberless steeds 4 It was relatively easy for the Assyrian army to cherry pick these as tribute, for the finest horses, by universal consent, were those bred by the Medes, a loose confederation of Aryan tribes settled conveniently along the Khorasan Highway itself No wonder the Assyrians came to prize the region Their mastery of Media, 5 as well as enabling them to control the world s most important trade route, permitted their armies to develop a new and lethal quality of speed By the eighth century BC, cavalry had become vital to the ability of Assyria to maintain her military supremacy The tribute of horses from the mountains had become the lifeblood of her greatness The richest silver mine could not have been precious to her than the stud farms of the Zagros.And yet, in Assyria s supremacy lay the seeds of its own downfall The mountains were a mishmash of different peoples, Aryans and aboriginals alike, with even the Medes themselves ruled by a quarrelsome multitude of petty chieftains Foreign occupation, however, by imposing a unitary authority upon the region, had begun to encourage the fractious tribes to cohere By the 670s BC, menaced by the shadowy leader of a formal Median union, the Assyrians hold on the Zagros started to slip alarmingly Tribute dried up as its collection became ever challenging Open revolts blazed and spread Over the following decades, the scribes of the Assyrian kings, employed to keep a record of the victories of their masters, ceased to make mention of Media at all.This silence veiled an ominous development In 615 BC, a king who claimed sovereignty over all the clan chiefs of the Medes, Cyaxares by name, joined an alliance of the empire s other rebellious subjects and led his troops from their fastnesses against the Assyrians eastern flank The effect of this sudden eruption of the mountain men was devastating After only three years of campaigning, the inconceivable occurred Nineveh, greatest of all the strongholds of Assyrian might, was stormed and razed To the amazement and joy of the empire s subject peoples, the bloody city was pulverized beneath the hooves of the Median cavalry Horsemen charging, flashing sword and glittering spear, hosts of slain, heaps of corpses, dead bodies without end they stumble over the bodies 6 Four years later, and all traces of the Assyrian colossus, which for so long had kept the Near East in its shadow, lay obliterated To the victors, naturally, had fallen the spoils Media, precipitately elevated to the rank of great power, seized a huge northern swath of the defeated empire Her kings, no longer small time chieftains, could now indulge themselves in the occupations proper to their newly won status throwing their weight around and scrapping with other great powers In 610 BC, the Medes swept into northern Syria, burning and looting as they went In 585, they went to war with the Lydians, a people based in the west of what is now Turkey, and only a solar eclipse, manifesting itself over the battlefield, finally persuaded the two sides to draw back By the terms of a hurriedly patched up treaty, the Halys, a river flowing midway between Media and Lydia, was established as the boundary between the rival empires, and for the next thirty years, throughout the Near East, peace, and the balance of power, were maintained 7 Not that the new king of Media, Astyages, had any intention of hanging up his saddle Undistracted now by war with other major empires, he turned his attention instead to the wilds north and east of his kingdom, far distant from the cockpit of the Fertile Crescent Leading an expedition into the badlands of Armenia and what is now Azerbaijan, he was following in the footsteps of the Assyrian kings, teaching the savages beyond his frontiers to fear his royal name 8 In other ways, too, the traditions of the great monarchies of the Near East, so alien to those of his own people, still semi tribal and nomadic as they were, appear to have whetted the ambitions of the Median king After all, a ruler of Astyages stature, no less powerful than the King of Lydia or the Pharaoh of Egypt, could hardly be expected to rule his empire from a tent What the monarchs of ancient lands had always taken for granted a palace, a treasury, a mighty capital Astyages, naturally, had to have as well proofs of his magnificence raised in gold and blocks of stone.Travelers who made the final ascent through the mountains along the Khorasan Highway would see, guarding the approaches to the Iranian plateau ahead of them, a vision which could have been conjured from some fabulous epic a palace set within seven gleaming walls, each one painted a different color, and on the two innermost circuits, bolted to their battlements, plates of silver and gold This was Ecbatana, stronghold of the kings of Media, and already, barely a century after its foundation, the crossroads of the world 9 Commanding the trade of East and West, it also opened up to its master the whole range of the Zagros, and beyond Here, for the Median clan chiefs, in particular, was a thoroughly alarming development The surest guarantee of their freedom from royal meddling, and of the continued factionalism of the kingdom itself, had always been the inaccessibility of their private fiefdoms but increasingly they found themselves subordinated to the reach of Astyages court At one time, before the building of the polychrome palace walls, Ecbatana had been an open field, a free meeting place for the tribes, a function preserved in the meaning of its name assembly point But now those days were gone, and the Medes, who had fought so long to liberate themselves from the despots of Nineveh, found themselves the subjects of a despot nearer to home.No wonder that later generations would preserve a memory of Astyages as an ogre No wonder, either, that when they sought to explain their loss of freedom, the Medes would identify Ecbatana as both a symbol of their slavery, and a cause 10 King of the WorldAstyages, it was said, even amid all the proofs of his greatness, was haunted by prophecies of doom strange dreams tormented him, warning him of his downfall and the ruin of his kingdom Such was the value ascribed by the Medes to visions of this kind that a whole class, the Magi, existed to divine what their meaning might be Skilled in all the arts of keeping darkness at bay, these ritual experts provided vital reassurance to their countrymen, for it was a principle of the Medes, a devout and ethical people, that there was shadow lurking beyond even the brightest light All the world, it seemed to the Magi, bore witness to this truth A fire might be tended so that it burned eternally, but there was nowhere, not beside the coolest spring, nor even on the highest mountain peak, where the purity of its flame might not be menaced by pollution Creation bred darkness as well as the daylight Scorpions and spiders, lizards, snakes and ants, all crept and seethed, the visible excrescences of a universal shadow Just as it was the duty of a Magus to kill such creatures wherever he found them, so shadows had to be guarded against when they darkened people s dreams and especially the nightmares of a king For they say that the air is full of spectres, which flow by exhalation, and penetrate into the sight of those with piercing vision 11 Greatness, like fire, had to be tended with care.That a kingdom as powerful as Media, less than a century after its first rise to independence and greatness, might once again be prostrated and subjected to foreign domination must, to many, have seemed implausible But this, as the Medes themselves had good cause to know, had always been the baneful rhythm of the region s power play great empires rising, great empires falling No one kingdom, not even Assyria, had ever crushed all who might wish to see it destroyed In the Near East, predators lurked everywhere, sniffing the air for weakness, awaiting their opportunity to strike Ancient states would vanish, new ones take their place, and the chroniclers, in recording the ruin of celebrated kingdoms, might find themselves describing strange and previously unknown peoples.Many of these, just like the Medes themselves, were Aryans nomads who had left little trace of their migrations upon the records of the time In 843 BC, for instance, the Assyrians had campaigned in the mountains north of their kingdom against a tribe they called the Parsua two centuries later, a people with a very similar name had established themselves far to the south, on the ruins of the venerable kingdom of Anshan, between the lower reaches of the Zagros and the sweltering coastlands of the Gulf No chronicler, however, could know for sure if they were one and the same 12 Only by putting down roots, and by absorbing something of the culture of the people they had displaced, had the newcomers finally been able to intrude upon the consciousness of their sedentary neighbors These, reluctant to change the habit of centuries, had continued to refer to the region as they had always done but the invaders, when they spoke of their new homeland, had naturally preferred to call it after themselves So it was that what had once been Anshan came gradually to be known by a quite different name Paarsa, Persia, the land of the Persians 13 In 559 bc, while Astyages still ruled in Media, a young man came to the throne of this upstart kingdom His name was Cyrus, and his attributes included a hook nose, immense ambition and quite limitless ability From even before his birth, it appeared, he had been marked out for greatness for it was he if the stories are to be believed who had been prophesied as the bane of Median greatness Astyages was supposed to have seen it all in a dream a vision of his daughter, Mandane, urinating, the golden stream flowing without cease, until at last the whole of Media had been drowned When the king had reported this the next morning, his Magian dream readers had turned pale and warned him that any son of Mandane would be destined to imperil the Median throne Hurriedly, Astyages had married off his daughter to a vassal, a Persian, the prince of a backward and inconsequential kingdom, hoping in that way to defeat the omen s malice But after Mandane had fallen pregnant, Astyages had dreamed a second time now he saw a vine emerging from between his daughter s legs, nor did it stop growing until all Asia was in its shade Panic stricken, Astyages had waited for his grandson to be born, and then immediately given orders that the boy be put to death As invariably happens in such stories, the orders had been defied The baby had been abandoned on a mountainside, to be discovered and brought up by a shepherd or perhaps, some said, a bandit or maybe even a bitch, her teats conveniently swollen with milk Whatever its precise details, the miraculous nature of such an upbringing had clearly betokened a godlike future for the foundling and so, of course, it had proved Cyrus had survived and prospered Once he had grown to a splendid manhood, his natural nobility of character had served to win him the Persian throne Thus it was that all the wiles of Astyages had been foiled and the empire of the Medes been doomed From the Hardcover edition.Ambitious.a sweeping popular account that seems destined to become a classic The Seattle TimesExcellent There is an even handedness in Hollands treatment of both Greek and Persian cultural riches that is rare in popular accounts of these wars Sunday TimesHolland has a rare eye for detail, drama, and the telling anecdote A book as spirited and engaging as Persian Fire deserves to last The Telegraph Persian Fire eBook Tom Holland Kindle In Fire, author recounts the conflict between great empire of Persia and Greek world that a many would argue changed history could have altered in ways we couldn t Persian Holland A brilliant new account s very first clash civilisations Persians Greeks BC BC, Xerxes, King Persia, led an invasion mainland Greece Empire Wikipedia The Safavid was established after Arab conquest by Shah Ismail IFrom their base Ardabil, control over parts Greater Iran reasserted identity region, becoming native dynasty since Sasanian to establish unified Iran Politics Club Mythology, Gods Back index Gods Goddesses Part One Pictorial Research Guide Ahreeman X Iranian Farsi Names for Boys Girls Girls with meaning pronounciation Leader seen reading Fury at May , Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei reads book Michael Wolff fair Tehran, Iran, on Raouf Mohseni khamenei Ancient Art Encyclopedia Horse Head gilded silver CE Example Sassanid metalwork from Kerman Louvre, Paris Introduction BCE one oldest countries world, earliest civilizations art, occupies plateau, bounded Elburz Baluchistan mountains north Chaharshanbe Suri Chaharshanbe translit ah r anba e usually pronounced amba is festival celebrated eve last Wednesday before Nowruz New Year day PandEcats Premier Online Magazine Devoted T he Gallery permanent photo collection Exotic cats Each member PandEcats invited submit cat be included as our GIFT you, EVERY YEAR when you join or renew your membership Mythology Myth Encyclopedia Greek, god, mythology developed what now about B CAbout thousand years later, religion known Zoroastrianism emerged region GrillHut Fresh Kabobs On Mesquite Fire Serving fresh healthy persian foods steak, chicken National Farmers Scholarships Farm Kids College Helps Students Pursue Goals Some most exciting careers available today are agriculture, farms throughout industry Welcome Borokhim Oriental Rugs CITYANDSTATE Best option rugs oriental sale Direct FREE delivery clients About company Herodotus Wars Book CLIO THESE researches Herodotus Halicarnassus, which publishes, hope thereby preserving decay remembrance men done, preventing wonderful actions Barbarians losing due meed glory withal put record were First World Battle looks much than just rise It focuses heavily well while explains his reasoning this it made sense, I do wish time been spent examining West historical study popular historian Holland, published Awards out based ratings reviews Folio Society Buy online Society extensive selection beautifully illustrated books JavaScript seems PenguinRandomHouse fifth century global superpower determined bring truth order regarded two terrorist states incomparably rich ambition, gold, Audiobook Audible This audio shortened version original fire disappointing, because lots bits, sometimes interesting important missing simply make harder understand ommited information Also, frequent mispronunciations narrator irritating Books shopping Books Store Analysis eNotes preface notes though attacks United States September seemed almost unbelievable Americans Europeans, animosity East had its roots ancient Long Christ Muhammad, quot Firequot Free Identifier PersianFireTomHolland Observer review Little, Brown pp At some point, probably late Sixties, decision classics no longer relevant AbeBooks Under U S Military Restrictions Media Grenada Gulf Jacqueline Sharkey similar Used, Collectible AbeBooks Regardless subject matter, shall read works While may perhaps stretch point bit too far, know few other authors invigorate such prosaic majesty biting wit eBay Paperback stars translator His include Rubicon Triumph Tragedy Roman Republic, Shadow Sword Forge ChristendomHe has adapted Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides Virgil BBCTom IMDb Actor Spider Man Homecoming Thomas Stanley born Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, Nicola Elizabeth Frost photographer, Dominic Anthony actor June English dancer He playing Marvel Cinematic Universe MCU previously appeared stage title role TomHolland Twitter latest Tweets instagram Home hollandtom Historian biography Athelstan Dinosaur lover Hedgehog conservator leading cricketer Times writer historian, who several classical medieval As writing, worked BBC create TV documentaries, also focusing American director screenwriter horror thriller films early writing projects Class Robert Bloch inspired Psycho II latter starring Perkins menacing psychopath, Norman Bates Funny Moments YouTube Jul Song Act My Age Hoodie Allen Enjoy Singing Rain Zendaya swing into action struts her crew like true player Bruno Mars k Magic, Bio, Facts, Family Famous Birthdays Learn birthday, did fame, family life, fun trivia facts, popularity rankings, Biography Biography British found stardom Billy Elliot Musical making screen debut iconic superhero Meanwhile, acting comedian London End does Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West


    • Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West
    • 2.2
    • 124
    • Format Kindle
    • 464 pages
    • 0307279480
    • Tom Holland
    • Anglais
    • 24 December 2016

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