◼ reading ✌ Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution benefits ☢ ePUB Author Richard Beeman ♑

◼ reading ✌ Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution benefits ☢ ePUB Author Richard Beeman ♑ ◼ reading ✌ Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution benefits ☢ ePUB Author Richard Beeman ♑ CHAPTER ONE THE CRISIS it was a blustery Saturday morning on March 15, 1783, and patches of snow still flecked the ground General George Washington strode up a long hill toward a rocky promontory at the American army encampment seven miles southwest of Newburgh, New York He was about to face the greatest personal challenge of his career He was uncharacteristically nervous and uncertain, roiled by sensations of anger, frustration, and inadequacy He had led his army to a brilliant victory over the British at Yorktown some seventeen months earlier Yet the soldiers at Newburgh remained in the field, languishing, while peace negotiations dragged on in Paris His troops had not been paid for many months, and the Continental Congresss promises of a generous pension seemed as empty as the coffers of the bankrupt Confederation government To make matters worse, a cabal of American army officers, angry over the failure of the continental government to make good on its promises, had decided to take matters into their own hands Five days earlier, Major John Armstrong, aide de camp to the commander at Newburgh, General Horatio Gates Washingtons longtime rival , circulated an address to the soldiers, urging them to cease their meek supplications to an uncaring Congress and, if necessary, to throw off Washingtons leadership and redress their grievances by force of arms In a letter to his former aide de camp and protg Alexander Hamilton, Washington expressed his fear that the disgruntled soldiers might throw themselves into a gulph of Civil Horror Yet at the same time he had deep sympathy for their plight Indeed, Hamilton had been gently nudging his mentor to throw in his lot with the discontented soldiers As he approached his destination, Washington faced a painful choice to remain loyal to his long suffering troops or to honor the rule of law Americas ambitious experiment in liberty had seemed full of promise seven years earlier, in the summer of 1776, when Washington had ordered his commanders to read the Declaration of Independence aloud to their troops in order to steel them for the sacrifices ahead And they had met the challenge Since that time they had persevered through the cold and deprivation of Valley Forge, through nearly seven years of often dispiriting battle against the better equipped British Army Washington had come to understand that American liberty and American uniona strong unionwere inseparable The discontented soldiers at Newburgh threatened to put both liberty and the union at risk When he reached the top of the promontory, Washington entered a cavernous, drafty building, one hundred ten by thirty feet, which looked down on the Continental army encampment below The New Building had been constructed a few months earlier to encourage sociability among the officers But as Washington walked the length of the long hall past the five hundred assembled officers toward a small stage and lectern at the far end, there was little feeling of sociability in the air The spectacle presented by the officers, many of them with faces set in anger, deepened Washingtons gloom Everything about their appearance testified to the shameful neglect they had suffered at the hands of the continental governmentfrom their torn and soiled uniforms to their worn out boots and gaunt faces And these were the privileged few, the officers Washington knew that the enlisted men, waiting in their barracks for news of the outcome of the meeting, had suffered even greater privation While the officers were at times reduced to making their overcoats out of blankets, they wore those overcoats, as historian Charles Royster has observed, in the presence of men who had no blankets Forced to endure bitterly cold winters, often clad in uniforms pieced together from an old hunting shirt, overalls, or even rags, and subsisting on a diet barely adequate to keep body and soul together, the ordinary foot soldiers in Washingtons army had every reason to believe their country had betrayed them The failure of the government to pay the soldiers their wages hit the enlisted men the hardest, and it seemed to Washington nothing short of criminal Their wives and children back home were reduced to begging in the streets in order to avoid starvation Was this the liberty for which Americans had fought By the time Washington made his entrance, General Gates had already opened the meeting Washington interrupted him, asking for permission to address the officers Visibly shaken by Washingtons presence, Gates had no choice but to accede to the request of his rival, who was, after all, the commander in chief of the Continental army.4 A man typically comfortable and confident in any public situation, Washington was visibly agitated and uneasy He began with an apology He had not intended to involve himself in the controversy, but upon reading the content of Major Armstrongs address, he felt it necessary to speak his mind In a departure from his usual manner in speaking to his officers, he would not speak off the cuff Instead he took from the pocket of his coat a speech he had painstakingly written out the day before He began by vowing that he would extend every effort and power at his command in the attainment of complete justice for all of your trials and dangers, but then, assuming a suppliant tone, he proceeded Let me entreat you, gentlemen, on your part, not to take any measures which, viewed in the calm light of reason, will lessen the dignity and sully the glory you have hitherto maintained let me request you to rely on the plighted faith of your country, and place a full confidence in the purity of the intentions of Congress You will, by the dignity of your conduct afford occasion for posterity to say, when speaking of the glorious example you have exhibited to mankind, had this day been wanting, the world had never seen the last stage of perfection of which human nature is capable of attaining It was an impressive ending, perhaps as impressive a speech as Washington had ever given, but looking out at his audience, he could see that many of the officers remained unmoved At that point he pulled from his pocket a letter from one of his Virginia friendsJoseph Jones, a delegate to the Continental Congresswho had written him expressing sympathy for the plight of the soldiers and promising to work in the Congress to honor the governments obligations to them The letter was scrawled out in barely legible form, and Washington stumbled over its first few sentences Disoriented, he searched in the pocket of his coat once again and pulled out a pair of spectacles that had recently been sent to him by the Philadelphia scientist, David Rittenhouse It was probably the first time anyone had ever seen Washington wear spectacles in public Gentlemen, he said, you must pardon me I have grown grey in your service, and now find myself going blind He put on the glasses and finished reading the letter, making it clear to the officers that he would place his prestige and honor on the line in their cause, so long as that cause was served in a peaceful and lawful manner Then, without fanfare, he left the roomand the soldiers to their deliberations As he made his exit, tears streamed down the cheeks of some of the soldiers faces, and a husha hush borne of contrition and shamefell over the hall When they recovered their composure, the soldiers gave him a formal vote of thanks, repudiated Major Armstrongs address, and asked their commander in chief to act as their agent in securing their just rewards for service to their country Was it a guileless performance It probably was not, for Washington was a man who always carefully gauged the effects of his demeanor and his words in any public situation But one thing is certain No other man in America could have pulled it off And Washington was true to his word The Continental Congress, terrified by the threat of armed revolt and grovelingly grateful to Washington for his intervention, pledged its support for a financial settlement that went at least a part of the way toward meeting the soldiers salary and pension demands If one is looking for critical turning points in American history, times when the future direction of the republic might have altered course, Washingtons performance at Newburgh, the Constitutional Convention, Lincolns Gettysburg Address, and the subsequent passage of the constitutional amendments eradicating slavery from the American Constitution stand out as decisive Washington was the only man in America who possessed the combination of charisma, political and military experience, and public support capable of converting Americas experiment in republican liberty into a dictatorshipa benevolent dictatorship perhaps, but a dictatorship nevertheless Given the financial disarray and civil disorder represented by the discontent of the soldiers at Newburgh, Washington could have convinced himself that military solutions to civil political problems were the best course of action, as did many leaders in the revolutions of Latin America in the century to come Some, like Simn Bolvar in Venezuela, Peru, and Columbia, did so reluctantly Others, like Santa Anna in Mexico or Bernardo OHiggins in Chile, did so eagerly All of these countries have lived with a tradition of military intrusion in the affairs of their governments ever since.In sprightly, engaging prose and with a sure, steady scholarly hand, Rick Beeman has given us a vivid account of the most vital chapter of our early history the making of the Constitution This is a terrific book Jon Meacham, author of American Lion Beeman eschews the heroic version of the story in favor of a hard eyed narrative that in no way diminishes the Framers achievement In a motion by motion, day by day, debate by debate fashion, he re creates the delegates hard bargaining Masterfully told American history for the scholar and general reader alike Kirkus Reviews, starred review While some have boasted it as a work from Heaven, others have given it a less righteous origin I have many reasons to believe that it is the work of plain, honest men Gouverneur Morris Authoritative and readable Beeman s work is distiguished by a gently judicious tone that allows us to appreciate, and draw some lessons from, the delicate balances that emerged out of that passion filled Philadelphia crucible Walter Isaacson, The New York Times Book Review The fullest and most authoritative account of the Constitutional Convention ever written Gordon S Wood, author of The Radicalism of the American Revolution Engrossing This minute by minute account introduces us to a world, and time, where everything was at stake Chicago Tribune, editor s choice A stunning achievement easily the best and most comprehensive treatment of its subject ever written Weekly Standard Plain, Honest Men The Making of the American Constitution Plain, Richard Beeman on FREE shipping qualifying offers In May , in an atmosphere crisis, delegates met Philadelphia to design a radically new form government Distinguished historian captures as never before dynamic debate and characters men has ratings reviews Brian said popular view is pretty well expressed by John Milton, I ll quot Honest, accessible read for anyone interested story why convention was called how it resulted document at foundation United States talks about his book day account Constitutional Convention American who labored that historic summer Virtually all issues dispute extent presidential Audiobook Audible Written Beeman, Narrated Michael Prichard Download app start listening today Free with Trial Keep your audiobook forever, even if you cancel Don t love Swap free, anytime Penguin Random House fascinating portrait another time place, bold unprecedented men, both grand humble, wrote would live longer than they ever imagined This indispensable work our own time, which s meaning still rages Boca Raton Public Library OverDrive i PBworks fifty five forged through conflict, compromise, fragile consensus Of House, pages, caps decades thought research so critically shaped nation A long, richly detailed book, befits its large topic, opens final days Revolution bankrupt Congress, mutinous unpaid army,Richard Wikipedia Roy September biographer specializing Born Seattle, he published multiple books, Walsh Centennial Professor History Revolvy University Pennsylvania profiles LinkedIn View professionals named LinkedIn There are use exchange information, ideas, opportunities Harold Vyvyan Harmsworth Technical Instructor White Mountain profile LinkedIn, world largest professional community jobs listed their See complete discover Arizona AZ records found phone numbers, addresses, public records, background check reports possible arrest Whitepages people search most trusted directory The Daily Show TV Episode Directed Chuck O Neil With Jon Stewart, Samantha Bee, Joshua King IMDb Self Understanding Find industry contacts talent representation Access development titles not available IMDb March Cedar Springs, MI BEEMAN Springs Mr Devilo age went home be Lord Savior Friday, He Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution


    • Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution
    • 4.3
    • 587
    • Format Kindle
    • 544 pages
    • 0812976843
    • Richard Beeman
    • Anglais
    • 09 May 2016

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