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↽ Read full length The Ghosts of Cannae: Hannibal and the Darkest Hour of the Roman Republic online free ⇵ Author Robert L O Connell ∖

↽ Read full length The Ghosts of Cannae: Hannibal and the Darkest Hour of the Roman Republic online free ⇵ Author Robert L O Connell ∖ ↽ Read full length The Ghosts of Cannae: Hannibal and the Darkest Hour of the Roman Republic online free ⇵ Author Robert L O Connell ∖ Chapter One Traces of WarPolybius of Megalopolis peered down from a pass high in the Italian Alps and caught sight of the rich green Lombard plain far below It was exactly the same inviting panorama Hannibal had shown his half starved, half frozen, thoroughly discouraged army seventy three years before, exhorting them to stay the course on what would prove to be an amazing path of conquest Quite probably enough bits and pieces of that weary host remained visible for Polybius to be sure he was in the right spot a certitude denied future chroniclers, and giving rise to one of ancient historys most enduring and futile controversies Where exactly did Hannibal cross the Alps 1 Polybius, for his part, was free to concentrate on questions he found important It was his aiman endeavor that would eventually fill forty booksto explain to his fellow Greeks how a hitherto obscure city state on the Italian peninsula had come to dominate, virtually in the course of a lifetime, the entire Mediterranean world But if Rome stood at center stage in Polybiuss inquiry, Hannibal and Carthage were his foils Each in their own way had nearly put an end to Romes ambitions Both by this time were dead, obliterated by Rome, but it was the challenges they had posed and the disasters they had inflicted that Polybius found most compelling For no matter how bad things had gotten, Rome had always responded, had picked itself up out of the dustbin of history and soldiered on And it was in defeat than victory that Polybius saw the essence of Romes greatness.It never got worse than Cannae On August 2, 216 b.c., a terrible apocalyptic day in southern Italy, 120,000 men engaged in what amounted to a mass knife fight At the end of the fight, at least forty eight thousand Romans lay dead or dying, lying in pools of their own blood and vomit and feces, killed in the most intimate and terrible ways, their limbs hacked off, their faces and thoraxes and abdomens punctured and mangled This was Cannae, an event celebrated and studied as Hannibals paragon by future practitioners of the military arts, the apotheosis of the decisive victory Rome, on the other hand, lostsuffering on that one day battle deaths than the United States during the entire course of the war in Vietnam, suffering dead soldiers than any other army on any single day of combat in the entire course of Western military history Worse yet, Cannae came at the end of a string of savage defeats engineered by the same Hannibal, Romes nemesis destined to prey on Italy for another thirteen years and defeat army after army and kill general after general Yet none of this would plumb the depths reached on that awful afternoon in August.It has been argued that Polybius, aware of Cannaes enormous symbolic import, deliberately structured his history so as to make the battle appear as the absolute low point in Romes fortunes, thereby exaggerating its significance.2 Yet, not only do sheer numbers argue the contrary, but also Rome on this day lost a significant portion of its leadership class, between a quarter and a third of the senate, the members of which had been anxious to be present at what had been assumed would be a great victory Instead it was a debacle by any measure, so much so that a case can be made that Cannae was even critical than Polybius believed, in retrospect a true pivot point in Roman history Arguably the events of this August day either initiated or accelerated trends destined to push Rome from municipality to empire, from republican oligarchy to autocracy, from militia to professional army, from a realm of freeholders to a dominion of slaves and estates And the talisman of all of this change was one lucky survivor, a young mili tary tribune named Publius Cornelius Scipio, known to history as Africanus For at the end of many years of fighting, Rome still would need a general and an army good enough to defeat Hannibal, and Scipio Africanus, with the help of what remained of the battlefields disgraced refugees, would answer the call and in the process set all else in motion Typical Roman names of the late republican period had three elements a praenomen, or given name in this case Publius , chosen from a limited list and having no family connotation a nomen, referring to the gens or clan name Cornelii and, finally, the cognomen, or family within the clan Scipio From the Hardcover edition.A masterpiece of style, imagination, and erudition.Victor Davis Hanson, author of A War Like No OtherOutstanding a superb chronicle of events that shaped the fate of Western civilization Booklist OConnell is able to put himself and his reader on the ground at Cannae, gagging in the heat of a southern Italian midsummer, assailed by an overload from every one of the five senses The New York Times Book ReviewDramatic and comprehensive OConnell has established the new standard for studies of the second conflict between Rome and Carthage Publishers Weekly OConnell writes with clarity about an era shrouded in speculation Providence Journal Bulletin Angels Ghosts Angels Ghosts Exploring Spirit Phenomena DO SPIRITS EXIST WHAT ARE ANGELS GHOSTS REAL We began our quest to better understand the afterworld over twenty years ago The Shadowlands and Hauntings Started in as a safe haven for people who have one thing common, experiences with ghosts This is place where you can share experiences, learn interact without being laughed at or ridiculed The page features , visitor submitted stories, many photos, evp sounds There info on ghost investigations other related things AMERICAN HAUNTINGS GHOSTLY BOOKS, TOURS, EVENTS Website author Troy Taylor icludes Ghost Books, Hunts, Haunted Overnights, Events, America 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    • The Ghosts of Cannae: Hannibal and the Darkest Hour of the Roman Republic
    • 4.5
    • 845
    • Format Kindle
    • 336 pages
    • 0812978676
    • Robert L O Connell
    • Anglais
    • 13 September 2016

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