᠑ Best new Gulag: A History ᡐ Book Author Anne Applebaum ᢤ

᠑ Best new Gulag: A History ᡐ Book Author Anne Applebaum ᢤ ᠑ Best new Gulag: A History ᡐ Book Author Anne Applebaum ᢤ Chapter 1BOLSHEVIK BEGINNINGS But your spine has been smashed,My beautiful, pitiful era,And with an inane smileYou look back, cruel and weak,Like an animal past its prime,At the prints of your own paws. Osip Mandelstam, Vek1 One of my goals is to destroy the myth that the cruelest era of repression began in 1936 37 I think that in future, statistics will show that the wave of arrests, sentences and exile had already begun at the beginning of 1918, even before the official declaration, that autumn, of the Red Terror From that moment, the wave simply grew larger and larger, until the death of Stalin . Dmitrii Likhachev, Vospominaniya2In the year 1917, two waves of revolution rolled across Russia, sweeping Imperial Russian society aside as if it were destroying so many houses of cards After Czar Nicholas II abdicated in February, events proved extremely difficult for anyone to halt or control Alexander Kerensky, the leader of the first post revolutionary Provisional Government, later wrote that, in the void following the collapse of the old regime, all existing political and tactical programs, however bold and well conceived, appeared hanging aimlessly and uselessly in space.3But although the Provisional Government was weak, although popular dissatisfaction was widespread, although anger at the carnage caused by the First World War ran high, few expected power to fall into the hands of the Bolsheviks, one of several radical socialist parties agitating for even rapid change Abroad, the Bolsheviks were scarcely known One apocryphal tale illustrates foreign attitudes very well in 1917, so the story goes, a bureaucrat rushed into the office of the Austrian Foreign Minister, shouting, Your Excellency, there has been a revolution in Russia The minister snorted Who could make a revolution in Russia Surely not harmless Herr Trotsky, down at the Caf Central If the nature of the Bolsheviks was mysterious, their leader, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov the man the world would come to know by his revolutionary pseudonym, Lenin was even so During his many years as an migr revolutionary, Lenin had been recognized for his brilliance, but also disliked for his intemperance and his factionalism He picked frequent fights with other socialist leaders, and had a penchant for turning minor disagreements over seemingly irrelevant matters of dogma into major arguments.4In the first months following the February Revolution, Lenin was very far from holding a position of unchallenged authority, even within his own Party As late as mid October 1917, a handful of leading Bolsheviks continued to oppose his plan to carry out a coup d tat against the Provisional Government, arguing that the Party was unprepared to take power, and that it did not yet have popular support He won the argument, however, and on October 25 the coup took place Under the influence of Lenin s agitation, a mob sacked the Winter Palace The Bolsheviks arrested the ministers of the Provisional Government Within hours, Lenin had become the leader of the country he renamed Soviet Russia.Yet although Lenin had succeeded in taking power, his Bolshevik critics had not been entirely wrong The Bolsheviks were indeed wildly unprepared As a result, most of their early decisions, including the creation of the one party state, were taken to suit the needs of the moment Their popular support was indeed weak, and almost immediately they began to wage a bloody civil war, simply in order to stay in power From 1918, when the White Army of the old regime regrouped to fight the new Red Army led by Lenin s comrade, Herr Trotsky from the Caf Central some of the most brutal fighting ever seen in Europe raged across the Russian countryside Nor did all of the violence take place in battlefields The Bolsheviks went out of their way to quash intellectual and political opposition in any form it took, attacking not only the representatives of the old regime but also other socialists Mensheviks, Anarchists, Social Revolutionaries The new Soviet state would not know relative peace until 1921.5Against this background of improvisation and violence, the first Soviet labor camps were born Like so many other Bolshevik institutions, they were created ad hoc, in a hurry, as an emergency measure in the heat of the civil war This is not to say the idea had no prior appeal Three weeks before the October Revolution, Lenin himself was already sketching out an admittedly vague plan to organize obligatory work duty for wealthy capitalists By January 1918, angered by the depth of the anti Bolshevik resistance, he was even vehement, writing that he welcomed the arrest of millionaire saboteurs traveling in first and second class train compartments I suggest sentencing them to half a year s forced labor in a mine.6Lenin s vision of labor camps as a special form of punishment for a particular sort of bourgeois enemy sat well with his other beliefs about crime and criminals On the one hand, the first Soviet leader felt ambivalent about the jailing and punishment of traditional criminals thieves, pickpockets, murderers whom he perceived as potential allies In his view, the basic cause of social excess meaning crime was the exploitation of the masses The removal of the cause, he believed, will lead to the withering away of the excess No special punishments were therefore necessary to deter criminals in time, the Revolution itself would do away with them Some of the language in the Bolsheviks first criminal code would have thus warmed the hearts of the most radical, progressive criminal reformers in the West Among other things, the code decreed that there was no such thing as individual guilt, and that punishment should not be seen as retribution.7On the other hand, Lenin like the Bolshevik legal theorists who followed in his wake also reckoned that the creation of the Soviet state would create a new kind of criminal the class enemy A class enemy opposed the Revolution, and worked openly, or often secretly, to destroy it The class enemy was harder to identify than an ordinary criminal, and much harder to reform Unlike an ordinary criminal, a class enemy could never be trusted to cooperate with the Soviet regime, and required harsher punishment than would an ordinary murderer or thief Thus in May 1918, the first Bolshevik decree on bribery declared that If the person guilty of taking or offering bribes belongs to the propertied classes and is using the bribe to preserve or acquire privileges, linked to property rights, then he should be sentenced to the harshest and most unpleasant forced labor and all of his property should be confiscated.8From the very earliest days of the new Soviet state, in other words, people were to be sentenced not for what they had done, but for who they were.Unfortunately, nobody ever provided a clear description of what, exactly, a class enemy was supposed to look like As a result, arrests of all sorts increased dramatically in the wake of the Bolshevik coup From November 1917, revolutionary tribunals, composed of random supporters of the Revolution, began convicting random enemies of the Revolution Prison sentences, forced labor terms, and even capital punishment were arbitrarily meted out to bankers, to merchants wives, to speculators meaning anyone engaged in independent economic activity to former Czarist era prison warders and to anyone else who seemed suspicious.9The definition of who was and who was not an enemy also varied from place to place, sometimes overlapping with the definition of prisoner of war Upon occupying a new city, Trotsky s Red Army frequently took bourgeois hostages, who could be shot in case the White Army returned, as it often did along the fluctuating lines of the front In the interim they could be made to do forced labor, often digging trenches and building barricades.10 The distinction between political prisoners and common criminals was equally arbitrary The uneducated members of the temporary commissions and revolutionary tribunals might, for example, suddenly decide that a man caught riding a tram without a ticket had offended society, and sentence him for political crimes.11 In the end, many such decisions were left up to the policeman or soldiers doing the arresting Feliks Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka Lenin s secret police, the forerunner of the KGB personally kept a little black notebook in which he scribbled down the names and addresses of random enemies he came across while doing his job.These distinctions would remain vague right up until the collapse of the Soviet Union itself, eighty years later Nevertheless, the existence of two categories of prisoner political and criminal had a profound effect on the formation of the Soviet penal system During the first decade of Bolshevik rule, Soviet penitentiaries even split into two categories, one for each type of prisoner The split arose spontaneously, as a reaction to the chaos of the existing prison system In the very early days of the Revolution, all prisoners were incarcerated under the jurisdiction of the traditional judicial ministries, first the Commissariat of Justice, later the Commissariat of the Interior, and placed in the ordinary prison system That is, they were thrown into the remnants of the Czarist system, usually into the dirty, gloomy stone prisons which occupied a central position in every major town During the revolutionary years of 1917 to 1920, these institutions were in total disarray Mobs had stormed the jails, self appointed commissars had sacked the guards, prisoners had received wide ranging amnesties or had simply walked away.13By the time the Bolsheviks took charge, the few prisons that remained in operation were overcrowded and inadequate Only weeks after the Revolution, Lenin himself demanded extreme measures for the immediate improvement of food supplies to the Petrograd prisons.14 A few months later, a member of the Moscow Cheka visited the city s Taganskaya prison and reported terrible cold and filth, as well as typhus and hunger Most of the prisoners could not carry out their forced labor sentences because they had no clothes A newspaper report claimed that Butyrka prison in Moscow, designed to hold 1,000 prisoners, already contained 2,500 Another newspaper complained that the Red Guards unsystematically arrest hundreds of people every day, and then don t know what to do with them.15Overcrowding led to creative solutions Lacking anything better, the new authorities incarcerated prisoners in basements, attics, empty palaces, and old churches One survivor later remembered being placed in the cellar of a deserted house, in a single room with fifty people, no furniture, and little food those who did not get packages from their families simply starved.16 In December 1917, a Cheka commission discussed the fate of fifty six assorted prisoners thieves, drunks and various politicals who were being kept in the basement of the Smolny Institute, Lenin s headquarters in Petrograd.17Not everyone suffered from the chaotic conditions Robert Bruce Lockhart, a British diplomat accused of spying accurately, as it happened , was imprisoned in 1918 in a room in the Kremlin He occupied himself playing Patience, and reading Thucydides and Carlyle From time to time, a former imperial servant brought him hot tea and newspapers.18But even in the remaining traditional jails, prison regimes were erratic, and prison wardens were inexperienced A prisoner in the northern Russian city of Vyborg discovered that, in the topsy turvy post revolutionary world, his former chauffeur had become a prison guard The man was delighted to help his former master move to a better, drier cell, and eventually to escape One White Army colonel also recalled that in the Petrograd prison in December 1917 prisoners came and left at will, while homeless people slept in the cells at night Looking back on this era, one Soviet official remembered that the only people who didn t escape were those who were too lazy.20The disarray forced the Cheka to come up with new solutions the Bolsheviks could hardly allow their real enemies to enter the ordinary prison system Chaotic jails and lazy guards might be suitable for pickpockets and juvenile delinquents, but for the saboteurs, parasites, speculators, White Army officers, priests, bourgeois capitalists, and others who loomed so large in the Bolshevik imagination, creative solutions were needed.A solution was found as early as June 4, 1918, Trotsky called for a group of unruly Czech war prisoners to be pacified, disarmed, and placed in a kontslager a concentration camp Twelve days later, in a memorandum addressed to the Soviet government Trotsky again spoke of concentration camps, outdoor prisons in which the city and village bourgeoisie shall be mobilized and organized into rear service battalions to do menial work cleaning barracks, camps, streets, digging trenches, etc Those refusing will be fined, and held under arrest until the fine is paid.21In August, Lenin made use of the term as well In a telegram to the commissars of Penza, site of an anti Bolshevik uprising, he called for mass terror against the kulaks rich peasants , priests and White Guards and for the unreliable to be locked up in a concentration camp outside town.22 The facilities were already in place During the summer of 1918 in the wake of the Brest Litovsk Treaty which ended Russia s participation in the First World War the regime freed two million war prisoners The empty camps were immediately turned over to the Cheka.23At the time, the Cheka must have seemed the ideal body to take over the task of incarcerating enemies in special camps A completely new organization, the Cheka was designed to be the sword and shield of the Communist Party, and had no allegiance to the official Soviet government or any of its departments It had no traditions of legality, no obligation to obey the rule of law, no need to consult with the police or the courts or the Commissar of Justice Its very name spoke of its special status the All Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter Revolution and Sabotage or, using the Russian abbreviation for Extraordinary Commission the Ch K, or Cheka It was extraordinary precisely because it existed outside of ordinary legality.Almost as soon as it was created, the Cheka was given an extraordinary task to carry out On September 5, 1918, Dzerzhinsky was directed to implement Lenin s policy of Red Terror Launched in the wake of an assassination attempt on Lenin s life, this wave of terror arrests, imprisonments, murders organized than the random terror of the previous months, was in fact an important component of the civil war, directed against those suspected of working to destroy the Revolution on the home front It was bloody, it was merciless, and it was cruel as its perpetrators wanted it to be Krasnaya Gazeta, the organ of the Red Army, described it Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies in scores of hundreds Let them be thousands, let them drown themselves in their own blood For the blood of Lenin let there be floods of blood of the bourgeoisie blood, as much as possible .24The Red Terror was crucial to Lenin s struggle for power Concentration camps, the so called special camps, were crucial to the Red Terror They were mentioned in the very first decree on Red Terror, which called not only for the arrest and incarceration of important representatives of the bourgeoisie, landowners, industrialists, merchants, counter revolutionary priests, anti Soviet officers but also for their isolation in concentration camps.25 Although there are no reliable figures for numbers of prisoners, by the end of 1919 there were twenty one registered camps in Russia At the end of 1920 there were 107, five times as many.26Notes 1 From Stekla vechnosti, pp 172 73.2 Likhachev, Vosppminania, p 118.3 Pipes, pp 336 37.4 See, for example, Service, Lenin.5 Popies, pp 439 505 Figes, pp 474 551.6 Geller, pp 23 and 24.7 Jakobson, pp 18 26.8 Dekrety, vol II, pp 241 42, and vol III, p 80 Also Geller, p 10 Pipes, pp 793 800.9 Jakobson, pp 18 26 Decree On Revolutionart Tribunals, in Sbornik, December 19, 1917, pp 9 10.10 Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 1, Folder 63.11 Okhotin and Roginsky, p 13.12 RGASPI, 76 3 1 and 13.13 Jakobson, pp 10 17 Okhotin and Roginsky, pp 10 24.14 Dekrety, vol 1, p 40115 Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 1, Folder 4.16 Anonymous, Vo vlasti Gubcheka, pp 3 11.17 Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 1, Folder.18 Lockhart, pp 326 45.19 S G Eliseev, Tyuremnyi dnevnik, in Uroki, pp 17 19.20 Okhotin and Roginsky, p 11.21 Geller, p 43.22 Ibid., p 44 Leggett, p 103.23 Initially, the Cheka were put in charge of the camps in conjunction with the Central Collegium for War Prisoners and Refugees Tsentroplenbezh Okhotin and Roginskii, p 11.24 Leggett, p 108.25 Decree On Red Terror, in Sbornik, September 5, 1918, p 11.26 Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p 13.An important book It is fervently to be hoped that people will read Anne Applebaums excellent, tautly written, and very damning history The New York Times Book ReviewThe most authoritativeand comprehensiveaccount of this Soviet blight ever published by a Western writer NewsweekA titanic achievement learned and moving and profound No reader will easily forget Applebaums vivid accounts of the horrible human suffering of the Gulag National ReviewA tragic testimony to how evil ideologically inspired dictatorships can be The New York TimesLucid, painstakingly detailed, never sensational, it should have a place on every educated readers shelves Los Angeles TimesMagisterial Certain to remain the definitive account of its subject for years to come An immense achievement The New CriterionAn excellent account of the rise and fall of the Soviet labor camps between 1917 and 1986 A splendid book The New York Review of BooksShould become the standard history of one of the greatest evils of the 20th century The Economist Thorough, engrossing A searing attack on the corruption and the viciousness that seemed to rule the system and a testimonial to the resilience of the Russian people Her research is impeccable San Francisco Chronicle An affecting book that enables us at last to see the Gulag whole A valuable and necessary book The Wall Street Journal Ambitious and well documented Invaluable Applebaum methodically, and unflinchingly, provides a sense of what it was like to enter and inhabit the netherworld of the Gulag The New Yorker Applebaums writing is powerful and incisive, but it achieves this effect through simplicity and restraint rather than stylistic flourish An admirable and courageous book The Washington MonthlyMonumental Applebaum uses her own formidable reporting skills to construct a gripping narrative NewsdayValuable There is nothing like it in Russian, or in any other language It deserves to be widely read Financial TimesA book whose importance is impossible to exaggerate Magisterial Applebaums book, written with such quiet elegance and moral seriousness, is a major contribution to curing the amnesia that curiously seems to have affected broader public perceptions of one of the two or three major enormities of the twentieth century Times Literary SupplementA truly impressive achievement We should all be grateful to Applebaum The Sunday Times London A chronicle of ghastly human suffering, a history of one of the greatest abuses of power in the story of our species, and a cautionary tale of towering moral significance A magisterial work, written in an unflinching style that moves as much as it shocks, and that glistens with the teeming life and stinking putrefaction of doomed men and rotten ideals The Daily Telegraph London No Western author until Anne Applebaum attempted to produce a history of the Gulag based on the combination of eyewitness accounts and archival records The result is an impressively thorough and detailed study no aspect of this topic escapes her attention Well written, accessibleenlightening for both the general reader and specialists The New York SunFor the raw human experience of the camps, read Solzhenitsyns One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich or Irina Ratushinskayas Grey is the Color of Hope For the scope, context, and the terrible extent of the criminality, read this history Chicago Tribune Gulag Soviet Forced Labor Camps and the Struggle for The term GULAG is an acronym for bureaucratic institution, Glavnoe Upravlenie ispravitel no trudovykh LAGerei Main Administration of Corrective , that operated system forced labor camps in Stalin era Since publication Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn s Gulag Archipelago A History Anne Applebaum In this magisterial acclaimed history, offers first fully documented portrait Gulag, from its origins Russian Revolution, through expansion under Stalin, to collapse glasnost on FREE shipping qualifying vast array concentration was a repression punishment whose rationalized evil institutionalized inhumanity were rivaled only by Holocaust entered world historical consciousness Wikipedia Brief history Some suggest million people imprisoned estimates period are even difficult calculate Other calculations historian Orlando Fidesa, refer prisoners further deported exiled Kolyma Kolyma IPA k ma region located Far EastIt bounded East Siberian Sea Arctic Ocean north Okhotsk south gets name River mountain range, parts which not discovered until citation needed Today Jewish Killers Massacre Million Gulag brave Solzhenitsyn, famous writer who has been called Conscience th Century, served eight long years Russia May Be Secretly Destroying Its Prisoner secret government order destroy records sparked fears notorious episode being erased GulagBound How collectivists America GulagBound America combine with global tyrants our personal, state, national sovereignty Wikipdia, enciclopdia livre neutralidade deste artigo ou se c o foi questionada, conforme razes apontadas na pgina de discusso desde janeiro Justifique uso dessa marca e tente torn lo mais imparcial The Engineers Leaderless Arab Spring AFP article last April, Michael Posner, Assistant Secretary State, admitted US trained activists February Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Lebanon History, also published as Camps, non fiction book covering It written American author Doubleday Free Online Library contains three substantive sections two explain camps, one section describes daily life conveys wealth information her Applebaum, Paperback chilling lesson clarifies nature Americarsquo wartime ally defines wrongness, incompetence total futility system, extension, communism socialism Applebaum narrative account development Lenin Gorbachev Based archives, interviews, new research recently memoirs, explains role played political economic Revolvy won Pulitzer Prize General Non Fiction Thriftbooks held traces evolution gulag during Revolution final glasnost, describing their use how lived died, cultural social significance, Concentration by millions criminal terrorized entire society, embodying worst tendencies Doubleday Alexander epic oral Union, dozens memoirs studies aspects have Russia West Forejustice importance immediately recognized historians it examination divided into Powell Books Jonathan Weekly Standard review suggests reading chapters page tome saving rest series rainy days HISTORY established Joseph reign dictator Union word This website uses cookies Apr Video C SPAN Ms talked about Nearly passed than operation Recent Articles Europe needs start planning future July Brexit turned out be harder they thought so Brexiteers quitting Trump hinting at concessions Putin Anne anneapplebaum Twitter latest Tweets RED FAMINE, IRON CURTAIN Washington Post columnist Professor practice, LSEIGA co director,ARENA Warsaw, London, Post columnist, politics foreign policy, special focus She winning journalist regular Practice London School Economics, where she runs Arena, program dedicated disinformation st century propaganda Twitter American Tweet location You can add your Tweets, such city or precise location, web via third party applications All Stories Atlantic professor practice Economics Her Red Famine War Ukraine Polarization Slate Magazine Politics, Business most recent Iron Curtain Crushing Eastern Europe, Red did terrible famine hit all major grain growing regions, but result adverse climatic conditions product policies Gulag: A History


    • Gulag: A History
    • 1.1
    • 10
    • Format Kindle
    • 736 pages
    • 1400034094
    • Anne Applebaum
    • Anglais
    • 18 June 2016

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