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⇕ Download Format Kindle 〧 Seven Ages of Paris For Free ⥸ Book By Alistair Horne ⨬

⇕ Download Format Kindle 〧 Seven Ages of Paris For Free ⥸ Book By Alistair Horne ⨬ ⇕ Download Format Kindle 〧 Seven Ages of Paris For Free ⥸ Book By Alistair Horne ⨬ CHAPTER ONEAge OnePhilippe Auguste1180 1314Sunday at Bouvines I only wish this pile of stones could be silver, gold or diamonds the precious the materials of this castle, the greater pleasure I will have in possessing it when it falls into my hands.PRINCE PHILIPPE LATER KING PHILIPPE AUGUSTE , AGED NINE, IN 1174THE BUILD UPSome important battles in history have a surreptitious way of crystallizing what has gone before, as well as putting down a kind of marker for what is about to occur They can also affect the pattern of events far beyond the battlefield itself.It is perhaps what makes historians call them decisive Bouvines, fought on 27 July 1214, was one of those It was won by France against a powerful coalition of foes headed by King John of England, on a Sunday This in itself was unusual, for in those days of religious correctness knights and kings on the whole observed the sabbath as far as battle was concerned Bouvines was, over, to set the future shape not only of France but of Britain, too and it would be fundamental to the development of the capital city Paris was to become Some fifteen kilometres equidistant from the present day cities of Tournai in Belgium and France s Lille, Bouvines lies in soggy Flanders, site of the terrible battlefields where the destiny of France was to be played out exactly seven centuries later, 200 kilometres north east of Paris.When France s King Philippe Auguste arrived on the throne in 1180, aged fifteen, he inherited a tiny state, a fraction the size of Plantagenet England and its European dependencies, land locked and surrounded by powerful rivals How then did he come to find himself fighting and winning such a key battle in so unpromising a corner of Europe The then King of England, Henry II, was an imposing, authoritarian ruler who, at least in the early stages of his reign, seemed to have everything going for him His French father, the Plantagenet Duc d Anjou, brought him the rich territories of Anjou and Normandy and he acquired England through his marriage to the unhappy Matilda, heiress to William the Conqueror s son Henry I Between Matilda and her cousin King Stephen, England had been reduced to anarchy and, by the time Henry Plantagenet came to the throne in 1154 at the age of twenty one, was only too ready for the smack of strong rule In short order, Henry found himself reigning unchallenged from the Cheviots to the Pyrenees, his short lived Angevin Empire looming over the diminutive plot that was Louis VII s France With conspicuous cunning, Henry set about the encirclement of that plot by a network of alliances, and at times during his reign it looked as if the best the Capetians could expect would be to become vassals of the Angevin Empire controlled from Westminster and Rouen Yet the murder in 1170 of Archbishop Thomas Becket apparently invoked if not actually ordered by the King turned things upside down The turbulent priest became an instant international martyr, and a saint Henry could wear a horsehair shirt and have himself flogged in Avranches Cathedral by way of atonement, yet his image, and his power, would never quite recover from this particular bloodstain Louis, France and Paris were saved.Storing up trouble for himself and the Angevin Empire, the increasingly unpopular Henry now carried out a Lear like break up of his territories between his sons, Henry the Young aged fifteen in 1170 , Richard the future Coeur de Lion, aged twelve and Geoffrey eleven John, born only in 1167, was left out of the carve up thus to be known henceforth in France as Jean Sans Terre As Lear discovered, this was to prove folly in the extreme Prince Henry, though already crowned in anticipation in 1170 and strategically married to the daughter of Louis VII, was treated by his father in law as if he were already king, but in fact was never to succeed dying in 1183 In 1173, a general insurrection, the product of widespread popular discontent, broke out against Henry With his customary vigour, however, over a period of two years he crushed one by one all the coalitions mounted against him.Meanwhile in 1176 the worst flood of the Seine in memory swept away both bridges, carried off mills, houses and livestock on the crumbling banks, and came close to engulfing the whole city Attempting a form of flood control untried in modern times, Louis and his entire court and every undrowned monk and priest, headed by the Bishop of Paris, went in procession to the edge of the swirling waters Holding aloft a nail from the True Cross, the Bishop prayed In this song of the Holy Passion, may the waters return to their bed and this miserable people be protected The rain stopped, and the waters ebbed just in time.The uprising of 1173 had demonstrated the fundamental Achilles heel of Henry s empire the divisiveness of his quarrelsome sons, greedy for territory and glory Their future adversary Philippe, heir to the ageing Louis, saw it Aged only nine, standing before Henry s seemingly unassailable fortress at Gisors, and showing his future mettle, he is said to have remarked to his entourage, I only wish this pile of stones could be silver, gold or diamonds the precious the materials of this castle, the greater pleasure I will have in possessing it when it falls into my hands He would have to wait the best part of a generation.In 1180 Louis VII died, and Philippe Auguste succeeded him, aged only fifteen As he grew into the job, Philippe earned a reputation for being rus comme un renard cunning as a fox The only existing contemporary pen portrait of him describes him as a handsome, strapping fellow, bald but with a cheerful face of ruddy complexion, and a temperament much inclined towards good living, wine and women He was generous to his friends, stingy towards those who displeased him, well versed in the art of stratagem, orthodox in belief, prudent and stubborn in his resolves He made judgements with great speed and exactitude.He was keen to seek the counsel of intelligent men of humble birth, notably Brother Gurin, Bishop of Senlis, and Barthlemy de Roye, and he restricted his advisers at court to a very small circle He was to give the French monarchy in the words of the historian Andr Maurois the three instruments of rule which it lacked tractable officials, money and soldiers He was also to be one of the first true lovers of the city of Paris.France was soon at war again By the facts of life of the twelfth century, this signified skirmishes interrupted by frequent truces, but without any grand battle until Bouvines in 1214 By the fifth year of his reign, through a combination of skilful campaigning in Picardy and the dowry of his first queen, Isabelle of Hainault, the young Philippe had managed to expand his kingdom substantially northwards and southwards, including the key city of Amiens Almost immediately, he found himself at war with the mighty Henry It seemed like David taking on Goliath, but Philippe was cunning in his strategy of isolating the old King by forming alliances with his sons, first Geoffrey, then Richard Prince Henry having died barely three years after his father in law Louis and also with Barbarossa, the German Emperor.Henry, stricken by rheumatism and a painful fistula, was already old beyond his years At the beginning of 1188, Philippe, having split the Angevin Empire and doubled his forces through his alliance with Richard, was poised to move into Henry s Normandy Then suddenly news came from the Middle East that the Saracen, Saladin, had taken Jerusalem and was threatening Antioch The Pope, Clement III, commanded the Christian kings to cease fighting each other and embark on a fresh crusade the Third But before they could set out, Henry had died, on 7 July 1189, in the chapel of his French chteau of Chinon, to be buried in his Abbey of Fontevrault On the 20th, Richard was crowned duke of Normandy in Rouen, and king of England in London on 3 September He and Philippe Auguste then departed, as allies and close friends, for the Holy Land.Despite the romanticized portrait of him given in British Victorian history books, Richard Coeur de Lion was something of a brute He was arrogant and quarrelsome, with a habit of sowing hatred and rancour around him At home which he rashly left in the treacherous and incompetent hands of his brother, Jean Sans Terre he was accepted as a neglectful, popular absentee ruler, as befitting the repute of a knight errant In contrast, Philippe left his kingdom well organized and in good hands, as set down in a famous document, the Testament of 1190 Among other things, this provided for the construction of a continuous fortified wall or enceinte girdling Paris, making her impregnable to any enemy assailant for the first time in her history It was just as well, because he and his friend Richard their intimacy had evidently extended, in the innocent way of the Middle Ages, to sharing a bed in Paris were soon to become the most bitter enemies Reaching Genoa together, the two leaders first fell out over the number of ships each was to provide for crossing the Mediterranean In Sicily there were English charges of bad faith against Philippe, accused of conniving in the destruction of Richard s army Finally arriving in the Holy Land, the two kings managed to tip the balance in the terrible Siege of Acre, already under attack for two years But by the time of its capitulation in July 1191, intrigues plus the stresses of a grim campaign had seriously undermined the Anglo French entente To the enduring fury of Richard, Philippe now decided to break off from the Third Crusade and head for home The Count of Flanders had died during the Siege, and Philippe had his eyes on the Count s possessions in Artois and Vermandois.Richard, on the other hand, in the story so well known to generations of English schoolchildren, during his journey home fell foul of the German Emperor Henry VI, who kept him locked up for many long months in the Danube fortress of Drrenstein, pending payment of ransom Unfounded rumours ran round Paris that Richard had tried to poison Philippe at Acre, and even to have him assassinated in his own capital on his return Rashly, and acting in deplorably bad faith with Richard s evil brother John, Philippe endeavoured to bribe the Emperor with a substantial sum to continue to keep Richard under lock and key The Emperor Henry thoughtfully revealed all to Richard, who finally reached London in March 1194 Immediately he launched a fresh war against his former friend It was to last five years, with a continuity and intensity rare in the twelfth century.Much of the English King s fighting on French soil was carried out by a particularly brutal mercenary, Mercadier, who moved with utmost speed and ruthlessness from one province to another No quarter was given, with both sides issuing orders to blind or drown prisoners of war Predictably, John switched sides as soon as his brother set foot in Normandy and surrendered Evreux, having first massacred all his French allies there On 3 July 1194, Philippe Auguste suffered his most humiliating defeat, at Frteval in the Vendme, losing his baggage train, his treasury and the national archives To bottle Philippe up in Paris and to prevent him ever again threatening Normandy, Richard constructed an unassailable fortress at Chteau Gaillard on a key bend in the Seine, still a most imposing castle commanding the approaches to Paris Defeat followed defeat for Philippe Swayed by Richard s superior diplomatic skill, the Emperor Henry also joined in against Philippe, announcing his intention of annexing the right bank of the Rhne.By the end of 1198, it looked as if France would be sliced up once again and become a fiefdom of either Richard or the Emperor Once again, intervention from afar saved the day After news had come from Spain that the Moors were threatening a new invasion, the new Pope, Innocent III, applied irresistible pressure to the combatants to reach a truce The results were extremely tough on Philippe, obliging him to forfeit all of Normandy save the citadel of Gisors on which as a nine year old he had first set eyes and with it he in effect lost all the fruits of his campaigning over the previous ten years Had he died at this point, he would have been remembered with scorn as a historical nobody, and it seemed it would be only a matter of time before Richard renewed the war, with a final drive on Paris.Then the two sides fortunes were abruptly reversed While besieging a rebel fortress in Limousin with the dread Mercadier on 26 March 1199, Richard was wounded in the left shoulder by a bolt from a crossbow Gangrene set in, and the warrior king soon died All the defenders of the besieged city were hanged, but just before he died Richard with a last chivalrous gesture requested that his assailant be spared and given a sum of money The moment he was dead, however, Mercadier had the sharpshooter flayed alive and impaled King Richard is dead, and a thousand years have passed since there died a man whose loss was so great, sang the troubadours In Paris, Philippe Auguste no doubt heaved a sigh of relief Now there would be only weak, evil and hated Jean Sans Terre to deal with.THE PAPAL ROLEAll through Capetian France s struggles against the Plantagenets, Louis VII and his son had to contend with a powerful, and often unpredictable, player on the sidelines Stalin s sneering question to Churchill during the Second World War How many divisions has the Pope would have been answered in the twelfth century with a great many At the wave of the papal crucifix, or with the despatch of a legate, each pope could summon up armies and nations to bring pressure to bear on miscreant rulers In the Middle Ages, thoughts of death and eternal damnation were uppermost in all people s minds Upon the spiritual state of grace at the moment of death depended happiness, or misery, for the whole of eternity Though by the later Middle Ages views on the afterlife had lost some of their certainty, in the twelfth century notions of Purgatory were little considered it was a straight choice between the Bosom of Abraham and the Cauldron of Hell Such was the dread of eternal damnation, such the dread of excommunication or an interdict upon a whole nation, that the mere threat could reverse policies or even overturn thrones Perhaps never again would the power and influence of the Pope be greater.Knowledgeable and colorful, written with gusto and love An ambitious and skillful narrative that covers the history of Paris with considerable brio and fervor The Los Angeles Times Book ReviewConsistently bewitching Horne renders France unusually vivid by focusing on the one corner of it that millions of foreigners have toured or lived in or dreamed about The New York Times Book ReviewHorne gives readers a wonderful sense of everyday life in Paris at every turn and displays a convincing understanding of the Parisian character San Francisco ChronicleA fluid, graceful, deliberate prose stylist Hornes purpose is not to be encyclopedic but to paint a portrait, and this he does surpassingly well The Washington Post Book World Seven Ages of Paris This bar code number lets you verify that re getting exactly the right version or edition a book The digit and formats both work All world s stage Wikipedia All is phrase begins monologue from William Shakespeare As You Like It, spoken by melancholy Jaques in The Man ngca Poem lyrics Of stage, And all men women merely players, Church Ages williambranhamstorehouse THE SEVEN CHURCH AGES Literal Transcription Series Sermons Marrion Branham as Churches Asia From Alpha Omega Chapter Six Jim A Cornwell, Copyright , rights reserved Asia William players They have their exits entrances, one man his time plays many parts, His acts being seven Seven ALL entrances Acts ages Index An Exposition By INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE REVELATION OF JESUS CHRIST TO What are dispensations GotQuestions Question What Answer Dispensationalism method interpreting history divides God purposes toward mankind into different periods Usually, there identified, although some theologians believe nine Home Poetry Terms Famous Poets Links Bio Biography Blow, Thou Winter Wind blow, thou winter wind, art not soSimilar authors to follow Alistair Horne Hardcover Only left stock order soon More Buying Choices Used New offers Alistair Official Publisher Page Simon Schuster Horne, author of, most recently, Paris, Age Napoleon, French Revolution, fellow at St Antony College, Oxford Scotland alihorne Instagram photos k Followers, Following, Posts See videos Author Price Glory About Sir Allan was British journalist, biographer historian Europe, especially th century France alistair horne Books Online shopping great selection Books Store Discover books, read about author, find related products, Alastair pressfuturist Twitter latest Tweets Alastair European AHRC CDP PhD student Library Bath Spa on how mobile phones change storytelling freelance journalist speaker, social media advisor Cambridge, Europe Profiles Facebook View profiles people named Join Facebook connect with others may know gives power CBE FRSL November May He wrote than books travel, history, biography Contents Early life, military service, education Edit IMDb born London, England known for Great War Timewatch Charlie Rose married Sheelin Lorraine Ryan Renira Margaret Hawkins Ali Photography Ali year old travel photographer based Glasgow, WSJ Five Best war News Corp network leading companies worlds diversified media, news, education, information services Historian Onetime Spy whose prizewinning works included gripping account battle Verdun keen analysis Algerian President George W Bush alistair eBay Find deals eBay Shop confidence Sir obituary Guardian reading public, rare gift bringing alive places sounds even smells Photograph Geraint Lewis Rex Shutterstock who has died aged In this luminous portrait celebrated us culture, disasters, triumphs truly cities Lee, Male Voice Over Artist RMK Voices Sydney BIOGRAPHY can speak language musos, rev heads, jocks office workers because he been done it Lee genuine rounder RMK Actor Aimee Sydney female voice actor dynamo Her strength lies her vocal versatility ability under pressure She an incredible skill articulating client needs understanding heart campaign character English National Football Archive largest database football Archive includes match line ups goal scorers League Premier clubs season present day Gloucester Bristol Diocesan Association September Surprise Major Practice due take place Coln Aldwyn Cirencester Branch CANCELLED nd Very sadly, unfortunate combination circumstances, Autumn Training Day had be cancelled Hopefully off occurrence normal service will resumed next Algerian Tagrawla Tadzayrit Guerre d Algrie Part Cold decolonisation Africa Collage Algeria Chancellor Exchequer Chancellor Under Treasurer Majesty Exchequer, commonly simply Chancellor, senior official within Government United Kingdom head TreasuryThe Cabinet level position chancellor responsible economic financial matters, equivalent role finance Most Visited Artists BBC Music Get music love, our visited artists Add tracks your playlist, discover new Radio DJs oldtimetvmovies Hi home OLDTIMETV RADIO best net TV radio shows Come check out thousands we collection Pistes Cycle Sportive UK Highest Bank Thank everyone rode wee sister, friendliest sportive King Mountains It all, headwinds, crosswinds, hailstones marshals sunburn oh awesome chilli rice World II Recommended John Keegan At end book, Second War, Keegan list together provide comprehensive picture important events themes war, which readable general reader derive own Highland Cross Individual ResultsHighland Stewart Reid E Lawther David Clem Alex MacRae McKnight Lawrie Backtrack Volume Steamindex Number January Rebuilt West Country No Okehampton ready leave Southampton Central J Corkill front cover reflective mood Michael Rutherford Reproduced Industrial steam around Coventry Seven Ages of Paris

 

    • Seven Ages of Paris
    • 1.3
    • 57
    • Format Kindle
    • 496 pages
    • 1400034469
    • Alistair Horne
    • Anglais
    • 26 May 2016

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