ᄴ [PDF]-Free Download Last Hope Island: Britain, Occupied Europe, and the Brotherhood That Helped Turn the Tide of War ᓫ Ebook Author Lynne Olson ᪋

ᄴ [PDF]-Free Download Last Hope Island: Britain, Occupied Europe, and the Brotherhood That Helped Turn the Tide of War ᓫ Ebook Author Lynne Olson ᪋ ᄴ [PDF]-Free Download Last Hope Island: Britain, Occupied Europe, and the Brotherhood That Helped Turn the Tide of War ᓫ Ebook Author Lynne Olson ᪋ Chapter 1Majesty, We Are at War Hitler Invades NorwayOn a chilly April night in 1940, leading officials of the Norwegian government were invited to the German legation in Oslo for the screening of a new film The engraved invitations, sent by German minister Curt Bruer, directed the guests to wear full dress and orders, which indicated a gala formal occasion But for the white tie, bemedaled audience seated in the legations drawing room, the evening turned out to be anything but festive.Horrific images filled the screen from the films beginning dead horses, machine gunned civilians, a city consumed in flames Entitled Baptism of Fire, the movie was a documentary depicting the German conquest of Poland in September 1939 it portrayed in especially graphic detail the devastation caused by the bombing of Warsaw This, Bruer said after the screening, was what other countries could expect if they dared resist German attempts to defend them from England Appalled by the harrowing footage, Bruers guests were puzzled as to why the German diplomat thought it necessary to show the movie to them What could any of this have to do with peaceful, neutral Norway Four nights later, just after midnight, those same officials were awakened by urgent phone calls informing them that several ships of unknown origin had entered the fjord leading to Oslo A sea fog blanketing the fjord made it impossible to identify the ghostly armadas markings Within minutes, however, the mystery of their nationality was solved when reports of surprise German attacks on every major port in Norway and Denmark began flooding Norwegian government offices.Aboard the German heavy cruiser Blcher, General Erwin Engelbrecht, who commanded the attack force heading for Oslo, reviewed his orders with his subordinates In just a few hours, than a thousand troops, equipped with minutely detailed maps and photographs of the Norwegian capital, were to disembark from the Blcher in Oslos harbor Their assignment was to slip into the sleeping city and storm government buildings, the state radio station, and the royal palace Before noon, King Haakon, Crown Prince Olav, and the rest of the royal family would be under arrest and the Norwegian government under German control A band, also on board the Blcher, would play Deutschland ber Alles in the citys center to celebrate Germanys triumph, while German military officials took over administration of the country and its two most important material assetsits merchant marine and its gold.When a Norwegian patrol boat spotted the flotilla and had the temerity to issue a challenge, the boat was machine gunned and sunk Farther up the fjord, two small island forts, alerted by the patrol boat, also fired on the ships, but the heavy fog made accurate sighting impossible and the vessels swept on untouched Shortly before 4 a.m., the convoy approached Oscarsborg Fortress, an island stronghold built in the midnineteenth century and Oslos last major line of defense The Blchers captain was as unperturbed by the sight of the fortress as he had been by the pesky patrol boat On his charts and maps, Oscarsborg was identified as a museum and its two antiquated cannons described as obsolete.The maps and charts were wrong on both counts The fortress was operational, and so were the old cannons, fondly called Moses and Aaron by their crews The fog lifted a bit, and as the darkened silhouettes of the ships came into view, a searchlight on the mainland suddenly illuminated the Blcher Moses and Aaron erupted at point blank range, their shells crashing into the 12,000 ton heavy cruiser One shell smashed into the Blchers bridge, destroying its gunnery and navigational controls, while another slammed into a storeroom filled with aviation fuel Shore batteries also began firing Within seconds, the Blcher was ablaze, the flames leaping high into the air, burning off the fog, and lighting up the snow covered banks of the fjord.With a great roar, the ships torpedo magazine exploded, and less than an hour later, the Blcher, commissioned only seven months before, rolled over on its side and sank Nearly one thousand men went down with her, including most of the elite troops assigned to capture the royal family and government officials General Engelbrecht was one of the several hundred survivors who escaped the burning oil covering the fjords surface and swam frantically to shore.Throughout that dayApril 9, 1940Hitlers audacious, meticulously planned invasion of Denmark and Norway had gone almost exactly as planned By early afternoon, virtually all the Fhrers major objectives along the 1,500 miles of Norwegian coastline had been takenall, that is, except Oslo, the political, economic, and communications center of Norway and the key to the operations eventual success.At 1 30 a.m on April 9, the man atop Germanys most wanted list of Norwegians was awakened by his aide de camp Majesty, the aide said urgently, we are at war The news came as no surprise to King Haakon VII He had been expectingand dreadingit for years In 1932, he had told the British admiral Sir John Kelly, If Hitler comes to power in Germany and manages to hold on to it, then we shall have a war in Europe before another decade is over.Hitler had come to power, but Norways political leaders had ignored the kings repeated urging to strengthen the countrys shockingly weak defenses Like other Scandinavian nations, Norway had long since abandoned its bellicose Viking heritage peace, not war, was deeply rooted in its psyche Norwegians had little admiration for military heroes, of whom their country, in any case, had few Much esteemed were the winners of the Nobel Peace Prize, chosen annually by the Norwegian parliament It was very difficult to be a military man in prewar Norway, noted one of the few army officers on active duty in April 1940.In the late 1930s, this seagoing countrys navy had only seventy ships its two largest were the oldest ironclads in the world, affectionately called my old bathtubs by the naval chief of staff The tiny Norwegian army, armed with vintage rifles and cannons, had no submachine or antiaircraft guns The cavalry was supposed to be equipped with tanks, but the money appropriated by the government was so infinitesimal that only one tank had been purchased, so that Norwegian soldiers could at least see one sample in their lifetime Field maneuvers had not been held for yearsthey had been abolished as a way of saving moneyand many brigade commanders had never even met their men.Norways military vulnerability, however, was of little concern to its government leaders The country had been at peace for well over a century, had successfully maintained its neutrality during World War I, and intended to remain neutral in the future Money should be spent on social reforms, Norways leaders believed, not on building up the military In the view of most Norwegians, war was the kind of thing that happened in other parts of the world, noted Sigrid Undset, a Norwegian novelist who won the 1928 Nobel Prize in Literature How many of us had ever seriously believed it could happen in Norway Having made a close study of Hitler, including reading Mein Kampf in the early 1930s, the sixty seven year old king was far less sanguine If war broke out, his peaceable northern kingdom, though militarily defenseless, would have great strategic importance Facing Britain to the west, it provided a gateway to the North Atlantic To the south, it had access to the Baltic Sea and the German coast Not least, it controlled the northwest sea route through which iron ore from Sweden was shipped to Germany, the ores main customer And then there was Norways far flung merchant marine fleet, a glittering prize for Hitler or any other belligerent.But whenever Haakon raised these and other points, government leaders disregarded themand him Most Norwegian officials scorned the monarchy as a useless relic of a bygone age and believed it should have no influence in government matters Many thought there should be no monarchy at all As much as he loved Norway, Haakon sometimes felt unwelcome there, at least in government circles Not infrequently, he felt like the foreigner he once had been.Until he became king of Norway, Haakon VII, the second son of the crown prince of Denmark, had barely set foot in the country He did not learn to speak Norwegian until the age of thirty three, shortly before his reign began Known as Prince Carl in Denmark, he had been a modest, unassuming young royal who grew up believing he would never be king of anything, for which he was profoundly grateful His mother had reportedly pressured him to marry the young Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, but he had resisted, wanting nothing to do with the pomp and formality of official court life Instead, he wooed and won his first cousin Maud, the sports mad daughter of King Edward VII of Britain, who was as anxious for a quiet life, out of the limelight, as he was At the time of his marriage, Carl, who sported a tattoo of an anchor on his arm, was an officer in the Danish navy and planned to make it his career.But in 1905, Norways declaration of independence from Sweden turned the life of the sailor prince upside down The century old union between the two countries had never been an equal one Sweden, whose kings ruled both nations, had been the dominant partner from the beginning, and Norway had been growing increasingly restive To lessen the chance of forceful Swedish opposition to their peaceful rebellion, Norwegian leaders said they would welcome a junior member of Swedens royal family as the countrys new monarch Prince Carl, whose maternal grandfather was the king of Sweden and Norway, was the obvious choice.The prince, however, was appalled at the idea Not only did he want to remain in the Danish navy, he knew virtually nothing about Norway and its people He was also acutely aware that many citizens of Norway, which had abolished its aristocracy in the nineteenth century, were in favor of a republic, not a monarchy Under heavy pressure from his father in law, Edward VII, among others, he finally agreedbut only if Norway held a referendum on the issue When 88 percent of the electorate voted for a monarchy, Carl was crowned, taking the ancient Norwegian royal name of Haakon His wife, English to the core, refused to renounce her given name she was known as Queen Maud until the day she died in 1938 She continued, as she always had done, to address her husband as Charles, the Anglified version of Carl I actually have plans to make him completely English, she confided to her diary early in their courtship With Haakon as monarch, Norway boasted the most egalitarian kingdom in the world Sir Frederick Ponsonby, an aide to Queen Mauds father, once said that Norway was so socialistic that a King and Queen seemed out of place After a visit to Oslo in 1911, Theodore Roosevelt wrote to an acquaintance that the insertion of a royal family into the most democratic society in Europe was like Vermont offhandedly trying the experiment of having a King.Haakon, who frequently described his position as that of a very democratic president for life, was known to his people as Herre Konge Mr King rather than Your Majesty The royal family lived simply, with Queen Maud often doing her own shopping In his frequent tours of the country and travels abroad, Haakon impressed those he met with his friendliness and wry sense of humor Once, at a gathering of the British royal family at Windsor, he noticed a youthful distant cousin of his, Lord Frederick Cambridge, standing awkwardly by himself in a corner He marched over and vigorously shook the young peers hand You dont know me, he said Let me introduce myself Im old Norway.As close as he was to his British relatives and as much as he loved their country, Haakon was horrified by the refusal of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlains government to confront Hitler over his repeated aggressions in the 1930s After World War II began in September 1939, Norway, like other neutral European countries, made clear that it wanted no part of a military alliance with a nation that, along with France, had handed over much of Czechoslovakia to the Fhrer and then, having declared war against Germany for invading Poland, had failed to do anything to aid the Poles All the small nations now understand that we in the future have to look after ourselves, Haakon wrote chidingly to his nephew, Britains King George VI.Until the spring of 1940, the war was a conflict in name only Chamberlain and most officials in his government had no interest in and no intention of fighting a real war They had imposed an economic blockade against Hitler and seemed to think that this would be enough to bring him to his knees.Winston Churchill, Chamberlains first lord of the admiralty and the British Cabinets only bellicose member, strongly disagreed with Chamberlains phony war strategy From the wars first day, he demanded that Britain take the offensive against Germanybut not on German soil The confrontation, he said, should come in the waters of Norway He repeatedly urged the British government to stop the shipment of Swedish iron ore, vital to Germanys armament industry, along Norways coastline When both Norway and Sweden protested that idea, Churchill was infuriated by their reluctance to become battlefields for the warring powers We are fighting to re establish the reign of law and to protect the liberties of small countries, he told the War Cabinet a claim that both Poland and Czechoslovakia might have found hard to stomach Small nations must not tie our hands when we are fighting for their rights and freedoms Humanity, rather than legality, must be our guide.After hesitating for months, Chamberlain finally gave in to Churchills pressure At dawn on April 8, 1940, British ships began sowing mines along the Norwegian coast Hitler, who weeks earlier had said he would forestall any British move on Norway, had already ordered his high command to implement carefully prepared plans for the following days surprise attack and occupation of both Norway and Denmark.In most respects, Germanys land, sea, and air assault on the two Scandinavian countries was a brilliant success Before it began, Hitler had decreed that the kings of Norway and Denmark must be prevented from escaping at all costs In Copenhagen, the Germans had no trouble finding King Christian X of Denmark, Haakons sixty nine year old brother, who capitulated as ordered But bad weather and the sinking of the Blcher had upset the split second timing of the assault on Oslo When German troops finally entered the royal palace, government buildings, and the Bank of Norway that afternoon, they found only frightened low level government employees and piles of papers burning in furnaces and fireplaces The bank vaults lay empty, with no trace of the countrys gold bullion The king and government leaders had vanished, too. Last Hope Island is a book to be welcomed, both for the past it recovers and also, quite simply, for being such a pleasant tome to read Certain of these refugee groups have had their stories told before but Olsons book is the first to weave this all together Its a well written and well illustrated book, and deeply researched The Washington Post In Last Hope Island Lynne Olson argues an arresting new thesis that the people of occupied Europe and the expatriate leaders did far for their own liberation than historians and the public alike recognize The scale of the organization she describes is breathtaking The New York Times Book Review A brisk and compelling portrait of wartime Britain The Wall Street Journal A pointed volume Olson tells a great story and has a fine eye for character The Boston GlobeSpellbinding a masterful account of England in World War II Olson brings both a journalists eye and a novelists command of character and setting to this subject For American readers inclined to begin their World War II reading after U.S entry into the conflict, Last Hope Island opens a fascinating trove of stories, characters and facts Olsons book, ten years in the making, not only helps illuminate the past but also serves as an insightful backdrop for todays discussion of the future of twenty first century European alliances BookPage, Top PickA rip roaring saga of hairbreadth escape, espionage, and resistance during World War II, Lynne Olsons Last Hope Island salvages the forgotten stories of a collection of heroic souls from seven countries overrun by Hitler who find refuge in Churchills London and then seek payback in ways large and small In thrilling fashion, Olson shows us that hell hath no fury like a small country scorned.Erik Larson, New York Times bestselling author of Dead Wake Lynne Olson is a master storyteller, and she brings her great gifts to this riveting narrative of the resistance to Hitlers war machine You will be thrilled and movedand enraged, saddened, and shockedby the courage and steadfastness, human waste and stupidity, carelessness and nobility, of an epic struggle Last Hope Island is a smashing good tale.Evan Thomas, New York Times bestselling author of Being Nixon In a series of compelling books in recent years, Lynne Olson has established herself as an authoritative and entertaining chronicler of perhaps the largest single event in human historythe Second World War Now comes Last Hope Island, a powerful and surprising account of how figures from Nazi occupied Europe found Great Britain an essential shield and sword in the struggle against Hitler This is a wonderful work of history, told in Olsons trademark style.Jon Meacham, Pulitzer Prizewinning author of American Lion You wouldnt think that there would still be untold tales about World War II, but Lynne Olson, a master of that period of history, has found some Not only does she narrate them with her usual verve, but her book reminds us how much we unthinkingly assume that it was the United States and Britain alone who defeated the Nazis in Western Europe Last Hope Island is a valuable, and immensely readable, corrective.Adam Hochschild, New York Times bestselling author of King Leopolds Ghost This is a history book that reads like the best thrillers Olson offers a fascinating view of the war and its aftermath, less from a military than from a high level civilian perspective The many individuals are finely drawn, major developments are well covered, and the book provides an unusual and very insightful angle on the war Booklist starred review Last Hope Island Britain, Occupied Europe, and the Last is a book to be welcomed, both for past it recovers also, quite simply, being such pleasant tome read Certain of these refugee groups have had their stories told before but Olson s first weave this all together Animal Rescue Since , has been dedicated rescue rehabilitation stray, abandoned death due pound animals Links iSeekGolf The golf course at Resort an holes 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    • Last Hope Island: Britain, Occupied Europe, and the Brotherhood That Helped Turn the Tide of War
    • 2.2
    • 122
    • Format Kindle
    • 0812997352
    • Lynne Olson
    • Anglais
    • 10 July 2016

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