↖ reading The Essential Writings of Machiavelli eBook: Niccolo Machiavelli, Albert Russell Ascoli, Peter Constantine: Amazon.fr: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l. benefits ⣒ Kindle By Peter Constantine ⤫ Chapter OneOf the kinds of principalities that exist, and how they can be acquiredAll states, all dominions that rule or have ruled over men, are or have been either republics or principalities Principalities are either hereditary, with a long established bloodline, or new And the new principalities are either entirely new, as Milan was to Francesco Sforza,2 or are like limbs added to the hereditary state of the prince who acquires them, as the Kingdom of Naples was to the King of Spain.3 States obtained in this way are accustomed either to living under a prince, or to being free They are acquired either with the arms of others, or with ones own, either by chance or by skill.2 Francesco Sforza 140166 was a soldier of fortune who became Duke of Milan in 1450.3 Ferdinand the Catholic 14521516 , King of Aragon, also became Ferdinand III of Naples in 1504.chapter twoOf hereditary principalitiesI will not discuss republics, as I have already done so at some length elsewhere I shall only concentrate on principalities, and shall weave together the threads I have already laid out I will show how these principalities can be governed and maintained.First, states that are hereditary and tied to the bloodline of their prince are easier to maintain than new ones It is enough not to diverge from the practices of ones forebears, and to handle unforeseen issues as they arise If such a prince is of at least average ability he can retain his position of power, so long as no extraordinary or excessive force deprive him of it If this prince is deprived of his state, he will find he can reacquire it if any misfortune befalls the usurper.In Italy we have the example of the Duke of Ferrara, who resisted the assaults of the Venetians in 1484 and of Pope Julius II in 1510, for the simple reason that he had inherited an ancient principality.4 A hereditary prince has less cause to mistreat his subjects, and so is loved by them If unusual vices do not make him hated, it is to be expected that he will be loved by his people.The long continuum of the dominion obliterates the memories and issues that make men yearn for innovation, for one change will inevitably forge a link to another.4 In fact, Duke Ercole dEste of Ferrara managed to end the war with Venetians in 1484, while his son Duke Alfonso managed to stay in power despite excommunication and an ongoing war with the papal forces.chapter threeOf mixed principalitiesIt is in the new principality that the difficulties lie First, if the principality is not completely new, but is like a limb or extension added to another principality in which case we could almost call the whole state a mixed principality , its volatility stems mainly from a difficulty inherent in all new principalities This is that men will willingly change their ruler in the hope that they will fare better, a hope that leads them to take up arms against their old ruler But in this they are deceived, because, as they invariably discover, their lot under a new ruler is inevitably worse This is the result of another natural and basic inevitability that you cannot avoid offending those whose new ruler you are, both with your armed soldiers and with innumerable other provocations that come in the wake of a conquest You end up making enemies of all those you have offended during your conquest of the principality, and you find that you cannot keep the friendship of those who helped you to power, since you cannot satisfy them in the way they had envisioned Further, you cannot take strong measures against them, as you are indebted to them Even with the most powerful army, if you want to invade a state, you need the support of the people It was for these reasons that King Louis XII of France was quick to occupy Milan, and just as quick to lose it Duke Ludovicos own forces were enough to win Milan back the first time, because the same masses that had opened the gates for Louis, finding themselves misled in their hopes for a better future, could not endure the new princes offenses.5It is a fact that once a prince acquires a rebellious state for the second time, it also proves harder to lose that state a second time.6 This is because the prince who seizes the opportunity of the rebellion has fewer scruples about securing his position by punishing offenders, flushing out suspects, and strengthening all the places where he is weakest In this sense, it was enough for a Duke Ludovico to make a little noise along the borders for Louis XII to lose Milan the first time But for him to lose Milan a second time the whole world had to unite against him, defeat his army, and chase it out of Italy.7 This followed from the causes I have already laid out Nonetheless, both the first and second time, Milan was taken from him.The general reasons for the first loss have been discussed It now remains to discuss the second, and to see what recourse someone in Louiss position could have taken to maintain himself securely in his new acquisition I must stress that the states a prince acquires and adds to his own are either of the same country and language, or are not If they are it is much easier to retain them, particularly if they are not used to freedom To hold them securely, it is enough to extinguish the line of the previous prince who ruled them As for the rest, if the new acquisitions former state of affairs is kept and there is no difference in customs, men will live quite peacefully, as we have seen in Burgundy, Brittany, Gascony, and Normandy, which for a long time now have all belonged to France Although there is some difference in language, their customs are similar, and their people get along with one another quite easily He who acquires such states and wishes to retain them has to make sure of two things that the bloodline of their former princes is extinguished, and that their laws and taxes remain the same This way, the princes new state merges with the old, quickly becoming a single body.If one were to assign a single edition of Machiavelli s works, this most certainly would be it John P McCormick, professor, department of political science, University of Chicago Constantine s selection is not only intelligent his translations are astonishingly good Thoughtfully introduced by Albert Russell Ascoli, this edition belongs in everyone s library John Jeffries Martin, professor and chair, department of history, Trinity University Abraham Joshua Heschel Essential Writings Modern Abraham Spiritual Masters Susannah on FREE shipping qualifying offers was one of the great religious teachers and moral prophets our time Born in Warsaw to a long line Hasidic rabbis Edge Sports Subscribe Edge Sports Column RSS Feed Radio iTunes To get sent you every week, just send an e mail edgeofsports gmail The Writings, Vol by Jawaharlal Nehru This anthology Nehru s writings, edited S Gopal, is comprehensive first rate selection It has been compiled mainly from his speeches writings The compilation indicates evolution mind personality gives some idea enormous range interests ask other Mahatma Gandhi Oxford Edited Judith M Brown World Classics A new with important Introduction leading scholar life, designed introduce life thought readers Ethics Library In Ethics philosopher Gordon Marino skillfully presents accessible, provocative both ancient modern classics matters moralThe philosophers represent , years Plato, Kant, Nietzsche Alasdair MacIntyre, Susan Wolf, Peter Singer cover broad topics, timeless questions justice, morality Jean Luc Marion, Paperback Marion this major contemporary spans entire career as historian philosophy, theologian, theoretician saturated phenomena Josephus Prophecy Watchers Josephus An Illustrated Edition Jewish Antiquities War New Translation Paul Maier Not another edition William Whiston difficult, dusty dated version Josephus, but completely translation found most editions available today book Flavius Josephus Buy cheap copy Updated, full color take brilliant dimension revised award winning Free over Zhuangzi Writings Zhuangzi With Selections Traditional Commentaries Translated, Introduction, Brook Ziporyn pp AbeBooks About Author Josphus c AD born aristocratic family, served priest, later became commander forces Galilee following revolt against Rome that began Lacan Background GradeSaver Lacan Questions Answers Question Answer section for resource questions, find answers, discuss novel Ask Your Own recipient Richard J Davis Awards excellence writing ethics law, author Kierkegaard Present Age, coeditor Cambridge Companion Kierkegaard, editor Library Basic Existentialism Quotable Mockingjay (Hunger Games Trilogy, Book 3) contains King, essential thoughts nonviolence, social policy, integration, black nationalism, love hope, Read ISBN eBook, WorldCatPeter 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- The Essential Writings of Machiavelli eBook: Niccolo Machiavelli, Albert Russell Ascoli, Peter Constantine: Amazon.fr: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
- Format Kindle
- 544 pages
- Peter Constantine
- 11 May 2017 Peter Constantine