২ Free Download ⨹ Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think ᤜ By Brian Wansink Ph.d. ཬ Chapter OneThe Mindless MarginDid you ever eat the last piece of crusty, dried out chocolate cake even though it tasted like chocolate scented cardboard Ever finish eating a bag of French fries even though they were cold, limp, and soggy It hurts to answer questions like these.Why do we overeat food that doesnt even taste good We overeat because there are signals and cues around us that tell us to eat Its simply not in our nature to pause after every bite and contemplate whether were full As we eat, we unknowinglymindlesslylook for signals or cues that weve had enough For instance, if theres nothing remaining on the table, thats a cue that its time to stop If everyone else has left the table, turned off the lights, and were sitting alone in the dark, thats another cue For many of us, as long as there are still a few milk soaked Fruit Loops left in the bottom of the cereal bowl, there is still work to be done It doesnt matter if were full, and it doesnt matter if we dont even really like Fruit Loops We eat as if it is our mission to finish them.Stale Popcorn and Frail WillpowerTake movie popcorn, for instance There is no right amount of popcorn to eat during a movie There are no rules of thumb or FDA guidelines People eat however much they want depending on how hungry they are and how good it tastes At least thats what they say.My graduate students and I think different We think that the cues around uslike the size of a popcorn bucketcan provide subtle but powerful suggestions about how much one should eat These cues can short circuit a persons hunger and taste signals, leading them to eat even if theyre not hungry and even if the food doesnt taste very good.If you were living in Chicago a few years back, you might have been our guest at a suburban theater matinee If you lined up to see the 1 05 p.m Saturday showing of Mel Gibsons new action movie, Payback, you would have had a surprise waiting for you a free bucket of popcorn.Every person who bought a ticketeven though many of them had just eaten lunchwas given a soft drink and either a medium size bucket of popcorn or a large size, bigger than your head bucket They were told that the popcorn and soft drinks were free and that we hoped they would be willing to answer a few concession stand related questions after the movie.There was only one catch This wasnt fresh popcorn Unknown to the moviegoers and even to my graduate students, this popcorn had been popped five days earlier and stored in sterile conditions until it was stale enough to squeak when it was eaten.To make sure it was kept separate from the rest of the theater popcorn, it was transported to the theater in bright yellow garbage bagsthe color yellow that screams Biohazard The popcorn was safe to eat, but it was stale enough one moviegoer said it was like eating Styrofoam packing peanuts Two others, forgetting they had been given it for free, asked for their money back During the movie, people would eat a couple bites, put the bucket down, pick it up again a few minutes later and have a couple bites, put it back down, and continue It might not have been good enough to eat all at once, but they couldnt leave it alone.Both popcorn containersmedium and largehad been selected to be big enough that nobody could finish all the popcorn And each person was given his or her own individual bucket so there would be no sharing.As soon as the movie ended and the credits began to roll, we asked everyone to take their popcorn with them We gave them a half page survey on bright biohazard yellow paper that asked whether they agreed to statements like I ate too much popcorn, by circling a number from 1 strongly disagree to 9 strongly agree As they did this, we weighed their remaining popcorn.When the people who had been given the large buckets handed their leftover popcorn to us, we said, Some people tonight were given medium size buckets of popcorn, and others, like yourself, were given these large size buckets We have found that the average person who is given a large size container eats than if they are given a medium size container Do you think you ate because you had the large size Most disagreed Many smugly said, That wouldnt happen to me, Things like that dont trick me, or Im pretty good at knowing when Im full.That may be what they believed, but it is not what happened.Weighing the buckets told us that the big bucket group people ate an average of 173 calories of popcorn That is roughly the equivalent of 21 dips into the bucket Clearly the quality of food is not what led them to eat Once these moviegoers started in on their bucket, the taste of the popcorn didnt matter Even though some of them had just had lunch, people who were given the big buckets ate an average of 53 percent than those given medium size buckets Give them a lot, and they eat a lot And this was five day old, stale popcorn Weve run other popcorn studies, and the results were always the same, however we tweaked the details It didnt matter if our moviegoers were in Pennsylvania, Illinois, or Iowa, and it didnt matter what kind of movie was showing, all of our popcorn studies led to the same conclusion People eat when you give them a bigger container Period It doesnt matter whether the popcorn is fresh or fourteen days old, or whether they were hungry or full when they sat down for the movie.Did people eat because they liked the popcorn No Did they eat because they were hungry No They ate because of all the cues around themnot only the size of the popcorn bucket, but also other factors Ill discuss later, such as the distracting movie, the sound of people eating popcorn around them, and the eating scripts we take to movie theaters with us All of these were cues that signaled it was okay to keep on eating and eating.Does this mean we can avoid mindless eating simply by replacing large bowls with smaller bowls Thats one piece of the puzzle, but there are a lot cues that can be engineered out of our lives As you will see, these hidden persuaders can even take the form of a tasty description on a menu or a classy name on a wine bottle Simply thinking that a meal will taste good can lead you to eat You wont even know it happened.As Fine as North Dakota WineThe restaurant is open only 24 nights a year and serves an inclusive prix fixe theme dinner each night A nice meal will cost you less than 25, but to get it you will have to phone for reservations and be seated at either 5 30 or 7 00 sharp Despite these drawbacks, there is often a waiting list.Welcome to the Spice Box The Spice Box looks like a restaurant it sounds like a restaurant and it smells like a restaurant To the people eating there, it is a restaurant To the people working there, its a fine dining lab sponsored by the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign The Spice Box is a lab where culinary hopefuls learn whether a new recipe will fly or go down in flames Its a lab where waitstaff discover whether a new approach will sizzle or fizzle Its also a lab where consumer psychologists have figured out what makes a person nibble a little or inhale it all.There is a secret and imaginary line down the middle of the dining room in the Spice Box On one Thursday, diners on the left side of the room might be getting a different version of the shrimp coconut jambalaya entre than those on the right On the next Thursday, diners on the left side will be given a menu with basic English names for the food, while those on the right will be given a menu with French sounding names On the Thursday after that, diners on the left side will hear each entre described by a waiter, while those on the right will read the same descriptions off the menu At the end of the meal, sometimes we ask the diners some short survey questions, but other times we carefully weigh how much food our guests have left on their plates That way we dont have to rely on what they say, we can rely on what they dowhich version of shrimp coconut jamba laya they polished off.But on one dark Thursday night in the first week of February 2004, something a little mischievous was planned for diners who braved the snow to keep their reservations They were getting a full glass of Cabernet Sauvignon before their meal Totally free Compliments of the house.This cabernet was not a fine vintage In fact, it was a 2 bottle sold under the brand name Charles Shawpopularly known as Two Buck Chuck But our diners didnt know this In fact, all the Charles Shaw labels had been soaked off the bottles and replaced with professionally designed labels that were 100 percent fake.Those on the left side of the room were being offered wine from the fictional Noahs Winery, a new California label The winerys classic, italicized logo was enveloped by a simple graphic of grapes and vines Below this, the wine proudly announced that it was NEW from California After the diners arrived and were seated, the waiter or waitress said, Good evening and welcome to the Spice Box As youre deciding what you want to eat this evening, were offering you a complimentary glass of Cabernet Sauvignon Its from a new California winery called Noahs Winery Each person was then poured a standard 3.8 ounce glass of wine.About an hour later, after they had finished their meal and were paying for it, we weighed the amount of wine left in each glass and the amount of the entre left on each plate We also had a record of when each diner had started eating and when they paid their bill and left.Diners on the right side of the room had exactly the same dining experiencewith one exception The waiter or waitresss carefully scripted welcome introduced a cabernet from a new North Dakota winery called Noahs Winery The label was identical to that on the first bottle, except for the words NEW from North Dakota.There is no Bordeaux region in North Dakota, nor is there a Burgundy region, nor a Champagne region There is, however, a Fargo region, a Bismarck region, and a Minot region Its just that there are no wine grapes grown in any of them California equals wine North Dakota equals snow or buffalo.People who were given North Dakota wine believed it was North Dakota wine But since it was the same wine we poured for those who thought they were getting California wine, that shouldnt influence their taste Should it It did We knew from an earlier lab study that people who thought they were drinking North Dakota wine had such low expectations, they rated the wine as tasting bad and their food as less tasty If a California wine label can give a glowing halo to an entire meal, a North Dakota wine label casts a shadow onto everything it touches.But our focus that particular night was whether these labels would influence how much our diners ate.After the meals were over, the first thing we discovered was that both groups of people drank about the same amount of wineall of it This was not so surprising It was only one glass of wine and it was a cold night Where they differed was in how much food they ate and how long they lingered at their table.Compared to those unlucky diners given wine with North Dakota labels, people who thought they had been given a free glass of California wine ate 11 percent of their food19 of the 24 even cleaned their plates They also lingered an average of 10 minutes longer at their table 64 minutes They stayed pretty much until the waitstaff starting dropping hints that the next seating would be starting soon.The night was not quite as magical for those given wine with the North Dakota label Not only did they leave food on their plates, this probably wasnt much of a meal to remember, because it went by so fast North Dakota wine drinkers sat down, drank, ate, paid, and were out in 55 minutesless than an hour For them, this was clearly not a special meal, it was just food.Exact same meals, exact same wine Different labels, different reactions.Now, to a cold eyed skeptic, there should have been no difference between the two groups They should have eaten the same amount and enjoyed it the same.They didnt They mindlessly ate That is, once they were given a free glass of California wine, they said to themselves This is going to be good Once they concluded it was going to be good, their experience lined up to confirm their expectations They no longer had to stop and think about whether the food and wine were really as good as they thought They had already decided.Of course, the same thing happened to the diners who were given the North Dakota wine Once they saw the label, they set themselves up for disappointment There was no halo there was a shadow And not only was the wine bad, the entire meal fell short.After our studies are over, we debrief peopleoften by e mailand tell them what the study was about and what results we expect For instance, with our different wine studies, we might say, We think the average person drinking what they believe is North Dakota wine will like their meal less than those given the California wine We then ask the kicker Do you think you were influenced by the states name you saw on the label Almost all will give the exact same answer No, I wasnt.In the thousands of debriefings weve done for hundreds of studies, nearly every person who was tricked by the words on a label, the size of a package, the lighting in a room, or the size of a plate said, I wasnt influenced by that They might acknowledge that others could be fooled, but they dont think they were That is what gives mindless eating so much power over uswere not aware its happening.Even when we do pay close attention we are suggestibleand even when it comes to cold, hard numbers If you ask people if there are or less than 50 calories in an apple, most will say When you ask them how many, the average person will say, 66 If you had instead asked if there were or less than 150 calories in an apple, most would say less When you ask them how many, the average person would say, 114 People unknowingly anchor or focus on the number they first hear and let that bias them.A while back, I teamed up with two professor friends of mineSteve Hoch and Bob Kentto see if anchoring influences how much food we buy in grocery stores We believed that grocery shoppers who saw numerical signs such as Limit 12 Per Person would buy much than those who saw signs such as No Limit Per Person To nail down the psychology behind this, we repeated this study in different forms, using different numbers, different promotions like 2 for 2 versus 1 for 1 , and in different supermarkets and convenience stores By the time we finished, we knew that any sign with a number promotion leads us to buy 30 to 100 percent than we normally would.After the research was completed and published in the Journal of Marketing Research, another friend and I were in the checkout line at a grocery store, where I saw a sign advertising gum, 10 packs for 2 I was eagerly counting out 10 packs onto the conveyer belt, when my friend commented, Didnt you just publish a big research paper on that Were all tricked by our environment Even if we know it in our head, most of the time we have way too much on our mind to remember it and act on it Thats why its easier to change our environment than our mind From the Hardcover edition.Brian Wansinks discoveries might very well change your life O The Oprah MagazineA fascinating look at the hidden psychology of eating TimePeppered with appealing humor, diet tips, and fascinating material The New York Times Mindless Eating Why We Eat More Than Think Brian Mindless Wansink on FREE shipping qualifying offers This book will literally change the way you think about your next meal Food psychologist revolutionizes our awareness of how much Week Challenge Notes Simple Reading and implementing what I learned from by was a real turning point in my weight loss journey It tipping that led to achieving peace with food d been seeking while maintaining Weight Watchers goal set back late s Background Now seven years later, as settle at scene fabulously easy tips tricks stop mindlessly eating Mindlessly eating is when we eat without thinking are doing Emotionally feelIt re not actually physically hungry Below help overcome Willpower Secrets From Pros Health For me, key too junk keeping stash healthy almonds nibble instead they perfect snack The combination protein fiber helps prevent Why work can add pounds cnn Jun , A report released Monday finds workplaces across America provide their employees foods high salt refined grains low whole fruit Ways You Burning Through Your Paycheck sunny seaside vacations big backyard barbecues, summer notorious for providing people opportunities spend However, fact feeling heat doesn t mean have burn through budget rest year By reducing bills watching incidentals, cut costs stowing away funds future Jaws shark man monster BBC News When top water, just see fin, it scary because unknown But underwater less saw Stuff Paul Graham July stuff Most do In fact, poorer are, seem Hardly anyone so poor afford front yard full old cars Here science behind why should never That lunch packed night before still sitting kitchen counter home piled need break, but don time sit enjoy Oatmeal Might Make Gain SELF great breakfast staple, might be sabotaging diets Our friends YouBeauty scoop With fall around corner, may already daydreaming You Not Losing Fat Because Too Damn Much Do want know losing fat Like, Yup Even aren even exercising hard, hardly yes, despite reading this getting pissed me telling wrong Practice Mindful Mindful Informal mindfulness practices those us who five minutes contemplate raisin Christopher Willard October Surprising Benefits Night LIVESTRONG recent study found carbs control appetite throughout day published Obesity Nutrition, Metabolism Cardiovascular Diseases, researchers put group obese female male police officers one two The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness IndustryMindless Eating faq What Can free teaching toolbox brian wansink much, what, To Help Spouse Healthier No Nagging Stock House Healthy Foods Out sight, out mind good tactic unhealthy Wansink, PhD director Cornell Brand Lab, wolf down than twice many chocolates right them compared farther feet covered May Be Making Livestrong center most homes where hang friends, pay kids homework At least true foster overeating, says Lab University Gotta Conclusion Here Somewhere Pipeline couple ago, wrote far human nutrition research unfit draw conclusions new story does nothing make person confident field detailed look lab Cornell, he hold an endowed chair He Resources Healthcare Professionals TOPS Club, IncKILA Resources Inc nonprofit, noncommercial support organization industry filled quick fixes fad diets, affordable evidence based program encourages members small, steady lifestyle changes lasting better health Health Expert Interviews Archives SuperKids Nutrition valuable insights practical live healthfully experts nation List Stanford Wikipedia page lists University, including students, alumni, faculty academic affiliates associated Founded former California Governor US Senator Leland his wife, Jane Stanford, university opened coeducational non denominational institution During s, Provost Frederick Terman supported Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think
- Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think
- Format Kindle
- 288 pages
- Brian Wansink Ph.d.
- 05 January 2017 Brian Wansink Ph.d.