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Ƨ Early reader series მ Kindle Ebook Author Marja Mogk ᅙ

Ƨ Early reader series მ Kindle Ebook Author Marja Mogk ᅙ Ƨ Early reader series მ Kindle Ebook Author Marja Mogk ᅙ What Is AMD A PortraitThis has become a true epidemic of our time.Jerry Chader, Ph.D.Chief Scientific OfficerThe Foundation Fighting BlindnessTen years ago, when Zelda Grant discovered she had age related macular degeneration, she was astounded Macular what she said She had never heard of it before Today most of us know something about AMD, but it still comes as a shock I couldnt believe it, Edina Williams told me, I kept thinking I need new glasses A new pair will solve the problem I still cant believe it Age related macular degeneration, or AMD, is the leading cause of adult vision loss in North America, Europe, and Australia It affects the sight of adults than all of the better known eye diseases combined glaucoma, cataracts, and diabetic retinopathy According to the Beaver Dam Eye Study, 18 percent of seniors aged sixty five to seventy four and nearly 30 percent of seniors over seventy five show early evidence of the condi tion One out of every twenty five Americans over sixty five, or nearly 1.5 million people, have already experienced significant vision loss from advanced macular degeneration, and 200,000 Americans lose vision every year Hundreds of thousands of people in Canada, England, Germany, and many other countries have lost vision from AMD, too Clearly, if you have AMD you are not alone.What Is Age Related Macular Degeneration Macular degeneration dismantles central vision painlessly and silently, leaving peripheral vision intact As a result, people with advanced macular degeneration do not feel any discomfort in their eyes and they do not appear any different to their friends and family, but their experience of the world and of their own capacities changes radically.Because macular degeneration leaves peripheral vision intact, people with AMD can see whatever rests at the edges of their vision but cannot see clearly whatever they look at directly They find it difficult to recognize their grandchildrens photographs, for example, but can describe the check pattern of a black and white tile floor They cannot read a bus sign but can see a green leaf on the sidewalk out of the corners of their eyes This combination of visual ability and vision loss is enormously frustrating, not the least because it takes away what we most want to see, leaving visible what appears to be less important As Carolyn See remarked dryly in her candid article in Modern Maturity about living with macular degeneration, It begins in the center of your vision and after a while you cant read or drive or recognize your relatives They say youll always be able to pick up a thread on the carpet But even with full vision, picking up threads on the carpet wasnt high on my list of activities.Why Has Macular Degeneration Suddenly Become So Common Ten years ago, when I met someone on a plane en route to giving a talk and told them what I do, they would look at me kinda funny, reflected Nikolai Stevenson, president of the Association for Macular Diseases, an organization run for and by people with AMD With a name like macular degeneration, for all they knew it was contagious Today, though, everyone seems to know someone else with it, too a neighbor, a friend, or a relative Macular degeneration is no longer a stealth intruder but a known one Why is AMD suddenly so common Is this a new epidemic Doctors have actually known about macular degeneration for than 100 years AMD was first named by a German scientist in 1885, but the technology used to see it clearly was not developed until the 1960s Unlike cataracts, which are visible to the naked eye, or glaucoma, which can easily be measured, macular degeneration was historically difficult to detect, analyze, and treat As a result, other eye conditions that were easier to understand and responded well to surgery and medication received much attention from the medical community during the twentieth century Macular degeneration fell to the bottom of the priority list, until now.Are people getting it today than ever before Yes, but we arent exactly sure why On the one hand, it may be a result of our eating habits, food production methods, and the effects of than half a century of heavy duty industrial pollution see chapter 3 for a discussion of the causes of macular degeneration and what you can do to minimize your risk On the other hand, there are simply of us today and we are living longer and healthier lives than ever before The longer you live, the likely you are to develop age related macular degeneration, which doesnt usually affect people until they pass the age of fifty and increases exponentially every decade thereafter hence the prefix age related.Its also true that many of our parents or grandparents may have had macular degeneration, but we didnt recognize their vision loss as a disease We saw it simply as a sign of growing old I remember my own grandmother stooped over in the garden wearing her black dress and black shoes, with her gray hair tucked in a bun It was 1947 and she was only sixty nine, but we thought she was very, very, very old We also knew she couldnt see well, but no one had a special name for that Today sixty nine is looking pretty young The folks in their late sixties I see at our visual rehabilitation program in Michigan come in wearing very spiffy outfits and have a good fifteen to thirty good years of reading, entertaining, traveling, and sports ahead of them Some of them arent even retired In fact, sometimes I see ninety year olds who fit that description If I suggested that they wear black, put their hair in a bun, and act old like my grandma was, theyd probably slug me Seniors today arent old the way they used to be, and they arent willing to pass off age related macular degeneration as something that just happens when youre old, nor should they.Macular Degeneration Gains AttentionIn the last ten years, macular degeneration has become a major health issue The National Eye Institute NEI , a division of the National Institutes of Health, has made AMD its number one priority, and Medicare has approved national coverage for visual rehabilitation for people with vision loss Studies are underway at major research centers across the country to discover the genetic components of AMD and its environmental causes and to find a cure Many new surg eries and treatments are on the horizon Chap ter 2, Medical Treatments, Research, and New Discoveries, outlines all of the exciting new developments in the field For the latest research updates, see the resources listed in appendix E We now know for sure that nutrition can help prevent the disease what you eat does make a difference See chapter 3, Genes, Greens, and Oils The Causes, Prevention, and Natural Treatment of AMD, for details and diet recommendations Macular degeneration is complicated, and so far there is no single easy answerbut we do have some answers and we have a very strong hope that many are soon to come.Macular Degeneration Isnt Just About Your EyesMost people say theyd rather lose a limb than an eye, and national surveys tend to place vision loss among the most feared afflictions, along with Alzheimers Why Because eyesight affects every aspect of life mobility, physical activity, communication, appearance, perception, self esteem, and psychological health Macular degeneration is not just about how much you can or cannot see Its about your whole life how you cope with change, your view of the future, and your capacity to enjoy the present And macular degeneration is tailor made to push every button we have It can raise feelings of grief, helplessness, depression, fear, anxiety, and anger Part II of this book addresses these experiences and how you can live fully with AMD, but first we have to really understand the condition itself As Zelda put it, Macular what What is this macular degeneration really AGE RELATED MACULARDEGENERATION EXPLAINEDOur Eyes Are Like Little CamerasYou have probably heard this analogy before Our eyes are like little cameras Just as light enters the camera through the shutter, is focused by the lens, and falls on the film, so light enters our eye through the pupil, is focused by the lens, and falls on the retina at the back of our eye The retina is like camera film Its thin tissue forms the inner lining of the eye, picking up light and converting it into nerve signals The retina sends those signals through the optic nerve to the brain, which develops them into the images we actually see, just as film is developed into photographs.The Macula Center of the RetinaThe retina has two types of photoreceptor cells that convert light into electrical messages for the optic nerve to transmit rod cells and cone cells, so named for their shapes There are many rods than cones throughout the retina, especially at the edges, where rods outnumber cones twenty to one Rod cells are responsible for light and dark contrast perception They essentially provide us with background information, but they cannot transmit crisp pictures We use the rods of our peripheral vision to catch a glimpse of something They tell us that a car is coming from the far left or right, but in order to see the car clearly or describe it, we instinctively turn to look at it directly As soon as we turn, however, we are no longer primarily using our rod cells to see but our cone cells Cones are concentrated in the center of the retinacalled the maculaand are responsible for central vision, color perception, and sharp images acute vision The capacity of cones to distinguish detail is one hundred times greater than that of rods We need them to tell the difference between forest green and black and to see precise detail, such as the features of a face, the lace pattern on a tablecloth, and the letters on this page The macula is therefore both the geographic center of the retina and the focal center of our vision The fovea is the very center of the macula It is also the only area of the retina that has only cone cells For all its power, though, the macula is very small it measures about a quarter inch in diameter and is tissue paper thin But the macula is truly a mouse that roars This tiny area is responsible for so much of what we see.Macular Degeneration The Key PlayersIn macular degeneration, rod and cone cells of the macula begin to die, reducing the number of cells able to transmit visual signals to the brain Macular degeneration, however, is not a condition of these cells alone but also of the underlying tissue that supports them and keeps them healthy In addition to the rods and cones, there are three key players in macular degeneration the retinal pigment epithelium RPE , Bruchs membrane, and the choroid In that order, each is a layer of tissue that lies beneath the retina, like layers of a club sandwich or, accurately, stations on a delivery line Taken together, they form a kind of conveyor belt for nutrition and waste management, constantly supplying the macula with oxygen laden meals and whisking away waste The large blood vessels of the choroid truck materials in and out through the bloodstream Bruchs membrane acts as a security gate between these blood vessels and the delicate RPE, and the RPE delivers oxygen and receives waste directly from the rod and cone cells in the macula.Normally, the system works very efficiently But if theres a jam somewhere, the oxygen meal shipments and the waste removals back up, clogging the pickup and drop off stations until they eventually shut down The choroid, Bruchs membrane, and the RPE become disabled and can no longer do their jobs When they fail, the rod and cone cells lack the massive amounts of oxygen they need to stay alive and cannot clear away the waste products they produce Dying of oxygen deprivation and clogged with refuse, rods and cones become unable to send signals through the optic nerve to the brainthey are no longer able to see This is what happens with macular degeneration.TWO TYPES OF AMD DRY AND WETThere are two types of macular degeneration, commonly called dry and wet All cases are thought to start with the dry form Between 10 and 15 percent of the people who show signs of dry macular degeneration eventually develop the wet form.Dry AMDAlthough there is only one kind of dry AMD, you may hear it called atrophic, geographic atrophy, or nonexudative macular degeneration Atrophic or atrophy refers to a declining, weakening, or wasting away We often use the word to talk about muscles that havent been used in a great while and lose their strength as a result We can exercise our muscles and regain strength, but unlike our muscles, atrophy in our macula isnt currently reversible This is because the macula atrophies from a lack of oxygen, not a lack of use And, as we know, any part of our body that suffers a prolonged lack of oxygen usually sustains permanent damage Geographic atrophy of the macula means atrophy concentrated in one contiguous area of the macula Nonexudative means not exuding, or notdischarging there is no blood leakage in the macula, contributing to the malfunctioning of the conveyor belt system.HARD AND SOFT DRUSENDry AMD is usually signaled by the presence in the macula of small pale spots called drusen There are two type of drusen less harmful hard drusen and ominous soft drusen Hard drusen are small, round, sharply defined light yellow deposits of lipid a fatty compound and calcium that accumulate on Bruchs membrane They are quite common with age, appearing in most older eyes like age spots appear on skin, and are not necessarily thought to indicate macular degenera tion Soft drusen can be nearly twice the size of hard drusen, with indistinct margins and varying sizes and shapes While soft drusen can be seen in older eyes that dont develop full blown AMD, they have been considered an early indicator of the condition, perhaps because they are the first feature of AMD that we can detect in an affected eye Recently, however, researchers have suggested that by the time we can see soft drusen in an eye, macular degeneration may already be advanced.Soft drusen are thought to plug up the conveyor belt system in dry macular degeneration Some researchers also believe that soft drusen are responsible for wet macular degeneration because they may weaken Bruchs membrane or because they may trigger the proliferation of abnormal blood vessels Other researchers disagree, arguing that soft drusen occur because Bruchs membrane has already been weakened for some other reason In any case, soft drusen signal to us that the conveyor belt support system for the macula is malfunctioning and Bruchs membrane is weak, which may allow abnormal blood vessels from the choroid to creep through.FOCAL HYPERPIGMENTATIONLike both hard and soft drusen, focal hyperpigmentation is a signal of possible early macular degeneration that your ophthalmologist can see during a standard dilated eye exam with no special testing Focal hyperpigmentation means the appearance of darkish irregular specks in the macula These specks are caused by pigment cells that clump up over time, although we arent sure exactly why they do Although the retina is transparent, it appears to us as reddish orange because the underlying RPE and choroid give it color The light yellow color of drusen and the darkish pigment flecks of focal hyperpigmentation show up against this red orange glow Macular degeneration is a condition of gradual deterioration and these changes indicate, at the very least, that the process is beginning.Wet AMDWet AMD is called wet because it is characterized by new abnormal leaky blood vessels that grow underneath the retina in the choroid You may also hear wet AMD called subretinal net, subretinal neovascularization SRNV , or choroidal neovascularization CNV Subretinal means underneath the retina or underneath the RPE, and neovascularization simply means new vessels Wet AMD may also be referred to as exudative degeneration Exudative means seeping or bleeding, referring to these abnormal blood vessels We dont know why these abnormal blood vessels grow They grow from the choroid through Bruchs membrane, which is not supposed to allow such a thing, and collect under the RPE like tree roots under a sidewalk.The walls of these vessels are weak and they tend to leak clear fluid like the fluid that accumulates when something swells up in the body and blood These liquids seep through the surrounding tissue, flooding the cone cells of the macula and either suffocating them or triggering changes that result in their death Very latestage wet macular degeneration is sometimes called disciform degeneration Although this refers to the disc shaped scars that result after bleeding occurs, disciform degeneration is generally used to simply refer to extensive or late stage degeneration.If these vessels leak enough, they may lift the RPE away from Bruchs membrane, creating a sort of blister between the two layers that permanently destroys the conveyor belt system in that particular area This condition is called a serous pigment epithelial detachment, or PED A PED is sometimes referred to in patient information pamphlets as a third type of macular degeneration, but it is a possible development in wet macular degeneration.Your ophthalmologist may be able to detect the presence of these abnormal blood vessels, because they sometimes give the affected area of your retina a muted gray green color But to define the precise size and shape of these vessels, an angiogram is necessary This is a photograph of your eye taken with a special camera that can detect dye in blood vessels Having an angiogram involves having dye injected into your arm This dye travels throughout your bloodstream, making all of your blood, including the blood in those abnormal vessels, glow for the camera Chapter 2 provides a detailed explanation of both kinds of angiograms commonly used, as well as treatments for macular degeneration.This is one of the rare books in low vision that I could not put down once I started reading This book should be read by everyone with macular degeneration, as well as their families, friends, and doctors It will be required reading for all my residents.RANDALL JOSE, O.D Director, Houston Delta Gamma Low Vision Center Editor, Understanding Low VisionAn outstanding booknot only educational but inspirational Everyone with macular degeneration, their family members, and all eye care professionals should have a copy.JOEL A KRAUT, M.D Medical Director, Vision Rehabilitation Service Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Harvard Medical SchoolThis book should be read, highlighted, and used as a guide by everyone who has macular degeneration, or is at risk of developing it.ROBERT W MASSOF, Ph.D Director, Lions Vision Research and Rehabilitation Center Johns Hopkins University Marja Mogk at California Lutheran University Dr is an amazing professor She extremely knowledgable in her subject and a great engaging lecturer really wants students to succeed goes out of way aid you doing so Meet the Authors Macular Degeneration The Complete Marja Mogk, PhD received from California, Berkeley with interdisciplinary dissertation disability studies associate chair Department English University, where Lylas G MD VisionAware internationally recognized expert on age related macular degeneration Macular Guide Saving Maximizing Your Sight Lylas FREE shipping qualifying offers acclaimed book now completely revised updated cutting edge research latest developments field More than fifteen million Americans have Evelyn , Thousand Oaks, CA MyLife years old was born Currently, she lives previously lived Grosse Pointe Park MI, Oakland MI Sometimes by various nicknames including maria mogk marja e Project MUSE Vampire Film Undead Cinema Jeffrey As points out, vampires are transgenre monsters They appear horror, science fiction, fantasy, End Page comedy, art house, other films, been endemic cinematic storytelling earliest feature film production Even cinema itself, as Weinstock writes, vampiric medium that requires darkness drains its subjects life, eBay A copy has read, but remains clean condition All pages intact, cover intact spine may show signs wear Pages can include limited notes highlighting, previous owner inscriptions At ThriftBooks, our motto Read More, Spend Less eBay Grand Times Depression very common among people Many experience short period depression they adjust vision loss, many others prolonged periods Be aware changes your friend or family member s emotional state, sleeping patterns, weight, behavior Saving Lives Impact Vision Loss Later Life Presented Pfizer Ophthalmology Therapeutic Area Conference March I Introduction Every year Age Related ARMD causes lose their central vision, Low Aids Make Brighter For Those With What he learned inspired his daughter, pronounced MOAK ophthalmologist Henry Ford Health System, granddaughter, doctoral freelance writer editor based Berkeley, worked for several social welfare counseling maintains active interest this Different bodies essays television Different television This collection new different authors It focuses contemporary selection books, Speaker Info Cal Lutheran Professor Book person speaker Email mmogk callutheran Phone Speeches Living presentation be designed fit audience aspects understanding living degeneration, current treatments, ongoing research, visual Macular Degeneration: The Complete Guide to Saving and Maximizing Your Sight

 

    • Macular Degeneration: The Complete Guide to Saving and Maximizing Your Sight
    • 2.2
    • 133
    • Format Kindle
    • 480 pages
    • Marja Mogk
    • Anglais
    • 04 January 2017

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