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ឬ Advantages of reading ῳ Northern Armageddon: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham and the Making of the American Revolution ⚦ Kindle Ebook By D Peter MacLeod ⚵

ឬ Advantages of reading ῳ Northern Armageddon: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham and the Making of the American Revolution  ⚦ Kindle Ebook By D Peter MacLeod ⚵ ឬ Advantages of reading ῳ Northern Armageddon: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham and the Making of the American Revolution ⚦ Kindle Ebook By D Peter MacLeod ⚵ Chapter 1500,000 Years of History Humans Make War Geography Shapes the BattlefieldThe history of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham began with a gentle rain of sediment floating down to the floor of the protoAtlantic Ocean during the late Precambrian era Time passed minute grains of sand and clay settled, accumulated, and hardened into gigantic blocks of sedimentary rock When tectonic shifts slammed them together, closing the proto Atlantic and creating the Appalachian Mountains, some of these blocks shifted westward One massive chunk of folded and faulted limestone, sandstone, and shale, six miles long, half a mile wide, and known to geologists as the Quebec Promontory, came to rest against the future Canadian Shield.Half a billion years later, the fate of Canada, the future United States, and the French and British Empires in North America turned on possession of this block of sedimentary rock.By September 1759, the Seven Years War, the titanic struggle for empire between France and Britain that Winston Churchill called the first world war, had been under way for just over five years During those five years, British goals in North America had changed from the occupation of the Ohio valley to the conquest of Canada.Yet although the British enjoyed comfortable margins of naval and military superiority in the region, they had spent most of those years reeling from defeat after defeat at the hands of Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, governor general of New France and commander in chief of the French armed forces in North America Year after year, the British in North America contemplated or attempted the conquest of part or all of New France Vaudreuil responded by sending Louis Joseph de Montcalm, his senior field commander, to capture British outposts and smash British offensives before they could threaten Canada.Sheer force of numbers, however, allowed the British to bounce back from defeat, rebuild their forts and armies, and take to the field once As British strength increased, French objectives shifted from blocking British expansion in the Ohio valley to fighting for survival amid the farms and cities of New France.The crucial campaign of the war began when a British fleet and army commanded by Vice Admiral Charles Saunders and Major General James Wolfe reached Quebec in 1759 Whoever controlled Quebec controlled Canada If Quebec fell, Canada would fall with it.As Canadas Atlantic port, Quebec was the sole point of contact between Canada and France A minor colony with a population of just seventy thousand, Canada lacked the human and material resources to fight a major war on its own In the words of an anonymous British strategist, Receiving supplies of men, stores, and provisions by sea is absolutely necessary for supporting maintaining that body of troops which they the French employ, Canadian or European, that number of posts which they possess in America.Breaking this link would suffocate the French Empire in North America In theory, the supply lines between France and New France could also be severed by blockade But despite manifest French naval weakness, the British never managed to isolate Canada The doing of this by cruising patrolling merely, confessed the anonymous strategist, has already been tried in a certain degree ineffectually, is perhaps to an absolute degree impossible as the St Lawrence River must still in a certain degree be open against the most vigilant cruise Even in 1759, when a British squadron sailed from Halifax to blockade Quebec, than twenty French supply ships arrived safely by slipping through the same ice fields that prevented the Royal Navy from entering the Gulf of St Lawrence before it was too late.The only sure way to isolate Canada from France was to take Quebec By going to Quebec, wrote the British commander in chief in North America in January 1757, success makes us master of every thing.Success, however, proved elusive.Perched atop the eastern tip of the Quebec Promontory, Canadas capital towered from sixty five to one hundred yards above the St Lawrence River Attacking Quebec from the river would leave an assault force stranded in Lower Town, clinging to the base of the cliff, trapped and vulnerable Attacking from the landward side meant finding a way up the promontory In 1759, the French reinforced these natural defenses by constructing a line of fortifications on the high ground along the Beauport shore between Quebec and the Montncy River and a chain of outposts extending from Quebec to Cap Rouge guarding ravines and roadways leading up the cliffs.When Saunders and Wolfe came to Quebec, they slammed into the Quebec Promontory and the Beauport entrenchments For three months, Saunderss navy and Wolfes army tried and failed to take Quebec Throughout that time, Vaudreuil and Montcalm remained safely inside a strong defensive perimeter, high above the St Lawrence, protected by 264 cannon and mortars on the city walls and 39 at Beauport.While Saunderss ships whisked troops up and down the St Lawrence River, Wolfes soldiers accomplished nothing beyond losing the Battle of Montncy on July 31 and adding a new level of brutality to the Seven Years War as they shelled Quebec into ruins and burned than a thousand farms in hope of forcing the French to come out and fight By September, Saunders and Wolfe were teetering on the verge of a humiliating defeat.Bad news for Saunders and Wolfe Bad news for the British Empire But very good news for Ashley Bowen of Marblehead, Massachusetts Chapter 2Sailing to Armageddon Ashley BowenFor the people of Canada, the British attack on Quebec was an unfolding tragedy For Ashley Bowen, it represented an opportunity to advance his nautical career by acquiring experience as a ships officer One among thousands of British and American mariners on the scene, Bowen is remembered for his autobiography, the first ever written by an American sailor.Even before he arrived in Canada, Ashley Bowen had led an active life Born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, fifteen miles northeast of Boston, in January 1728, Bowen began his seafaring career at age eleven Signing aboard as a ships boy in 1739, he sailed in the snow a small, two masted sailing vessel Diligence, carrying a cargo of tar from Cape Fear, North Carolina, to Bristol, England.Four months after his return home, disaster struck His mother died, an event he described as the greatest part of my ruining as may be seen the following year, and his father promptly remarried a fine rich widow Unwanted at home To obtain his wish of marriage to the widow, his father would separate his own family , Bowen returned to sea apprenticed for seven years to a merchant captain A training program like this was meant to qualify a teenager to become a ships officer and perhaps one day a captain Instead, the apprenticeship turned into an ugly round of beatings and abuse In 1744, on a voyage to Gibraltar, wrote Bowen,the master would take his cat and give me a dozen strokes on my back then take his quadrant and look for the sun then took a tiff of toddy, and so regularly he would do that office, one after another, till the Mate interfered for me and said if I should die on the passage out he would be a witness against him.Denied instruction in commerce and navigation, Bowen became a competent seaman but not a potential officer In 1745, he deserted in the West Indies and signed aboard a British privateer This marked the beginning of a new phase of a career that would take him all around the North Atlantic world and give him enough knowledge and experience to serve occasionally as a ships officer but mostly as a sailor.Finally, on March 29, 1759, opportunity knocked While Bowen was ashore at Marblehead, Robert Hooper, a leading citizen, approached him with an invitation to join the British attack on Quebec, not as a sailor, but as a midshipmanan apprentice officer in the Royal Navy Bowen accepted the next day He thereby became one of the five thousand men from Massachusetts which were to be raised to go by sea on board His Majestys ships at Halifax under Rear Admiral Durell The Quebec ExpeditionThe expedition that Bowen had agreed to join was a massive land and sea offensive, aimed at nothing less than the total elimination of French power in northeastern North America In the western interior, British and American soldiers lunged at Fort Duquesne in the Ohio valley and Fort Niagara on Lake Ontario In the east, two armies headed for Quebec One would advance down Lake Champlain, capture Montreal, then travel down the St Lawrence to Quebec The other would sail straight up the St Lawrence.A British American as well as a Royal NavyBritish Army venture, the Quebec expedition involved people and ships from all across Britains transatlantic empire On land, about one third of Wolfes nine thousand soldiers had been recruited in the American colonies This surprisingly high percentage reflects both the years that many British units had spent in the colonies during the war and the rising population of British America.The naval component of the British amphibious force included a quarter of the Royal Navyforty nine warships, crewed by 13,500 sailors and 2,100 marines One hundred and nineteen transports crewed by a further 4,500 sailors carried troops and supplies Vice Admiral Saunders described seventy four of these transports as American, forty five as English.With the fleet in great want of seamen, Saunders asked for colonial sailors In response to this request, an unknown but significant number of Americans volunteered to serve with the Royal Navy during the siege of Quebec Like American provincial troops, they took part in the campaign, then demobilized and returned to their homes in the fall Two hundred and forty sailors from Boston caught up with the fleet in Halifax before the expedition began More arrived from New England over the summer Senior naval officers treated the Americans as a distinct group known as New England volunteers, a group that included Ashley Bowen.Prior to the opening of the campaign, Saunders had written to the governors of New York and Massachusetts After informing them that the fleet and part of the army in North America will proceed early up the River St Lawrence to Quebec, and consequently stand in need of frequent supplies of all kinds of refreshments, he asked that they encourage American merchants to send shipments of provisions to the British forces at Quebec The merchant community seized this opportunity Throughout the siege, American shipping sailed up the St Lawrence carrying supplies to the British forces at Quebec.At least three African American teamsters, Jack, Leto, and Jeremy, accompanied the expedition They formed part of a body of civilian contractors who cared for eighty oxen and forty two draft horses that were embarked with Wolfes army to haul supplies and artillery A floating herd of 591 cattle from Boston came along to provide fresh meat for the army and the fleet Bowen JoinsHMS PembrokeNow a midshipman, Bowen recruited thirty two sailors and departed with them aboard the schooner Apollo on April 12 Bowen and his followers were not the only American passengers aboard Apollo who were heading for Quebec We have, he wrote, Captain Joseph Goreham with a company of Rangers on board.On April 16, the Apollo entered Halifax harbor On the seventeenth, Bowen joined HMS Pembroke, along with fifteen other New Englanders and fifty eight soldiers of the Royal American Regiment.When Bowen came aboard, John Simcoe, captain of HMS Pembroke, took some time to get to know his new American midshipman Bowen recorded their conversation He said to me, What country are you of I said I was born in Marblehead.Did you serve your time to the sea I said, Yes, Sir.What trade did you use I said, up the Mediterranean.What part I said, From Gibraltar to Port Mahon and to Cagliari on the Island Sardinia for salt and back to Mahon and home to Boston again.A day later, Bowen described his accommodations The last night I lodged on board His Majestys Ship Pembroke This morning at eight I turned out and got breakfast Note I mess with Mr Buckels and Mr Crisp two other midshipmen I mess on the starboard side just abaft the pump well in the orlop the lowest deck of the ship , and lodge in the best bower tier where anchor cables were stored on the same side.Aboard HMS Pembroke, Bowen came under the command of Rear Admiral Philip Durell.Educated by his aunt, Durell went to sea for the first time aboard his uncles ship at the age of fourteen in 1721, then spent the next five years learning his trade while serving off the Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New England coasts Promoted to lieutenant in 1731 and captain in 1743, he took part in the first siege of Louisbourg in 1745 In the course of that siege, he assisted in the capture of a French warship and two merchant ships and charted Louisbourg harbor Ten years later, Durell briefly returned to North America to reinforce a British squadron operating off Louisbourg and Newfoundland In 1758, he played a key role in the British landing at Louisbourg.As the British admiral with the most experience in North American waters, Durell could expect to be in the forefront of future campaigns in the region When most of the army and the fleet that captured Louisbourg sailed for Britain, New York, or New England, Durell and his squadron remained at Halifax, ready to take the lead in the next operation From Halifax to the St LawrenceAs troops and ships assembled in Britain and British America, Durell received orders to blockade the St Lawrence River as soon as the spring breakup of ice in the Gulf of St Lawrence allowed him to sail from Halifax.Following the siege of Louisbourg in 1758, the British had confirmed Canadas vulnerability to a spring blockade when one of Wolfes officers questioned the crew of a captured fishing boat off Gasp These prisoners, wrote Wolfe, assured us that there was great scarcity of provisions and great distress at Quebec and that the colony must be ruined, unless very early very powerful assistance arrived from France in 1759 In an undated note, Wolfe suggested that a fleet at the Isle of Bic in the lower St Lawrence River early in the year will probably complete the destruction of Canada.Durells mission was to do just that Toward the end of March 1759, he began sending out small vessels to survey ice conditions on the first leg of the sea route from Halifax to Quebec On April 8, his ships were ready for sea Owing, however, to unfavorable winds and reports of such quantities of ice that it is not as yet practicable for ships to pass to the eastward, without running great danger, the squadron did not leave Halifax harbor until May 5.Significantly advances our understanding of the naval role in the battle of the Plains of Abraham and excels all previous studies A vibrant portrait A visceral narrative Persuasive David Preston, The Wall Street JournalEven handed Vivid MacLeod has crafted a serious work of history that reads like an adventure novel He skillfully illuminates the many ways Americans fit into the big picture of the continents conflicts, in which two big nations emerged out of a patchwork of contending powers Clarke Crutchfield, Richmond Times DispatchWriting with a keen eye for the dramatic, MacLeod tells this story in a big way, giving equal parts to each side The events of the battle are finely rendered, and MacLeod makes a strong case for their importance as a precursor to the American Revolution Publishers WeeklyMacLeod explores the extent of Quebecs insurmountable natural defenses and Wolfes inability to overcome them The authors strong knowledge of every aspect of the fight prevails to produce an intricate, enlightening account Students of American history will appreciate the detail and the thoroughness of this account of what Churchill called the first world war KirkusDefinitive superb in its combination of individual perspective and strategic narrative Americans who composed roughly a third of the conquering army did not realize at the time that as Montcalms men surrendered they had taken the first steps on their own countrys path to independence This book tells usbrilliantlyboth how the battle was fought, and what it meant Eliot A Cohen, author of Conquered into Liberty Two Centuries of Battles Along the Great Warpath that Made the American Way of WarMasterful his descriptions are chilling Toronto Globe and Mail Armageddon Wikipedia According to the Book of Revelation in New Testament Bible, Armageddon r m d n , from Ancient Greek Harmaged n, Late Latin 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View I Introduction name inspired books, movies, an almost endless amount commentary very conjures up pictures vast armies, Tel BibleWalks Holy Land review Tel was Biblical city site situated gateway road North South Israel, about Km east Bible Prophecy Jerusalem Alpha News Daily Road To bless those who you curse Relentless wildfires caused widespread death destruction California wine country flames engulfed multiple raged Bear Grylls Backpack Bulk purchasing survival foods really solution initially start bear mind many easily assemble months worth emergency items every now then What Washington Enters War With Ease Paul Craig Roberts May Information Clearing It Europe whether not Earth dies nuclear ArmageddonEuropean governments realize their potential save aggression, because western Europeans accustomed being vassal statesPioneer Profile M Southern Alberta Pioneers MacBeth, Hugh came Fort Macleod He born at Kildonan, Manitoba Margaret Alexander MacBeth had come Scotland form Clan MacLeod Clan k l Scottish Gaelic Clann MhicLeid v t Highland clan associated Isle SkyeThere main branches MacLeods Harris Dunvegan, whose chief MacLeod, known Sol Tormoid seed Tormod Lewis Raasay, Something Water Peter Shandy Charlotte Something McLain shipping qualifying offers There definitely something water Maine resort staying quest find some rare lupines he witnesses sudden suspicious dinner Gavin Gavin Allan George See February American film television character actor, ship ambassador, Christian activist author, career spans six appeared guest talk, variety, religious programs began films playing opposite Mann Sword Ali Baba Anthony Mysteries Kindle edition Download once read your device, PC, phones tablets Use features like bookmarks, note taking highlighting while reading Genetics Faculty About Scacheri graduated BS Biology Gettysburg College earned PhD Biochemistry Molecular Genetics University Pittsburgh Biography IMDb raised Pleasantville, York, son gas station owner part 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    • Northern Armageddon: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham and the Making of the American Revolution
    • 1.4
    • 85
    • Format Kindle
    • 391 pages
    • D Peter MacLeod
    • Anglais
    • 24 March 2017

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