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圩 100 free ᅤ Down and Delirious in Mexico City: The Aztec Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century Ѵ Kindle Author Daniel Hernandez द

圩 100 free ᅤ Down and Delirious in Mexico City: The Aztec Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century  Ѵ Kindle Author Daniel Hernandez द 圩 100 free ᅤ Down and Delirious in Mexico City: The Aztec Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century Ѵ Kindle Author Daniel Hernandez द 6 The Lake of Fire Illustration by Rodrigo Betancourt You cant really appreciate the enormity of Mexico City until you leave it on the ground Merely landing at or departing from Benito Jurez International Airport belies the citys physical contours, the ranges of mountains that ring its basin Flying in or out conceals what youre really dealing with You must experience Mexico Citys hugeness as a journey of distance, inch by inch, mile by mile, traffic allowing On a late afternoon, nearing sunset, during the smoggiest season of the year, winter, your bus or car is climbing the mountains to the east The road curves and pitches You can feel the air outside get colder and colder The mountains in every direction are suddenly covered in brilliant green trees To the west the sun disappears behind a dark cloud hanging over the enormous valley It is not a rain cloud It is a blanket of pollution permanently fixed over the city A nasty thick black cloud, so dark in the shrinking light of dusk that you cannot see anything underneath it The only way you can tell the city exists below is because from miles away you can still feel its hum Its almost impossible to believe, like a vision of some futuristic hell People live there I survive my first smoggy winter in Mexico City by applying a gee whiz sort of awe to it I hack up alien looking green phlegm in the mornings for weeks at a time, but I cant really comprehend just how toxic the city gets around Christmas and the New Year In my second winter, I have moved to the Centro, to a second floor apartment facing a street choked constantly in the daytime with traffic It is a Saturday in late January when I wake up with a violent cough Throughout the day the air feels as if it is sagging on my back By Sunday I have a nagging headache It is cold at night, but it still feels hot out somehow Something on the skin, a stickiness, a barely perceptible unnatural film.The news bears out my suspicions It is a thermal inversion, an unkind weather phenomenon that afflicts places dense with people and pollutants In the mountain bowl of Mexico City, a thermal inversion can be acute and dangerous when it strikes during the dry season Warm air that gathers in daylight is trapped on the valley floor by cold air that moves in at night The warm air mixes with whats already there, all the pollutants of everyday urban activity It has been an especially polluted weekend in the capital Toxicity levels spike to a point that prompts the D.F government to activate its environmental contingency plan, calling for limited outdoor activity, temporary restrictions on the manufacturing sector, and circulation restrictions on certain vehicles such as older models and cars from neighboring states I scribble in a journal, My throat feels like a cat pissed in it and my head feels like its spent four hours listening to the same Daddy Yankee song on full volume, on loop.A few merciful breezes visit the city By that afternoon, the government lifts the contingency alert All activity returns to normal, but the following day the air still feels outrageously toxic This makes me a little nervous Mexico Citys current official slogan is Capital in Movement, so by necessity we can have it no other way A Mexico City with fewer cars and trucks on the streets, with less commercial and manufacturing activity, less movimiento, is a Mexico City that loses money by the hour Cant have that So eyes are puffy and dry, coughs are chronic, and just a few flights of stairs leave you winded That pinched sensation of nastiness lingers on the skin In the schools, recess is held indoors TV Azteca reports that scores of city children show up at doctors offices complaining of bronchitis They say the chief pollutant that weekend is ozone But whatever No one really knows what to call the cocktail we breathe in Mexico City It is a mixture of ozone with nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbonsinhaled and exhaled in a continuous cycle by some 20 million people, day in and day out What can you call that, really In the dryness of winter, the form and effects of the pollution are strongest But winter or not, it is always there, hanging invisibly over your head, even when the summer rains come and clear away the sitting atmosphere for a few hours a day At seventy three hundred feet, the valleys altitude, the air pressure is dramatically lower than on coastlines, which heightens the pollutions least favorable effects on the human body People get sick chronically The Mexico City smog affects your entire person, body and mind Knowing you are inhaling an atmosphere once famously described as being equivalent to a habit of daily chain smoking which plenty of capitalinos do anyway is enough to make you question your and your neighbors sanity.On the worst days, the cocky cigarette sucking of so many proud Mexico City natives grows exponentially What else can you do but gather friends and hunker inside, to booze up, suck in the nicotineMight as welland to think fondly of the days before the birth of the worlds first Smog City, a capital internationally known for being caked in pollution It was just the way the story went, when Mexico shifted from a largely rural society of communal farmland and the slow lifestyle of the hacienda to a rapidly urbanizing one of crowded highways and factories coughing purple fumes Starting in the late 1950s, people came to the big city in the valley from the provinces, near and far They kept coming, and kept coming Urban immigrants came looking for work because in Mexico City, they were told, it did not matter how poor or marginalized you were, you could find a hustle and provide for yourself The city was irresistible Slums sprang up around the outskirts, unplanned and all but ignored The same phenomenon would eventually change cities in East Asia, in other parts of North and South America, and in Africa and Europe, but for much of the twentieth century it did not happen at the scale and velocity anywhere else that it happened in high central Mexico A lack of proper infrastructure in an accelerating grid of humans and industry soon bred the first poisonous clouds over Mexico City, never to leave Environmental misery followed.Planners and regulators would dub it uncontainable, a city whose apparent destiny of failure was rooted in its ability to attract endless streams of new residents The city grew, by the thousands a day, by some accounts, and its situation worsened During a memorably bad period of thermal inversion in 1991, when the citys smog was at what is now considered its historical peak, the New York Times quoted a local expert If the meteorological conditions remain the same, then we could have a thermal inversion that could equal the killing smog of London in the winter of 195051.There is no such panic today, even on bad days The city has grown accustomed to itself In the bowl, no one seems to notice the poison The sky above you is some shade of blue, right Why complain The locals say it is normal They dont seem to mind They look at you with pity During this extra smoggy weekend in January, residents in my building make an effort to go outside as little as possible We open beers and talk In the darkened interior of an apartment upstairs, my neighbor Ponce, a cartoonist and illustrator born and raised in the capital, calmly explains the air of normalcy while smoking a few singles Were mutants, Ponce says.I down my can of beer, ask for an extra smoke, and retreat back to my apartment What Ponce says makes my eyes pop in recognition To be raised in Mexico City, or to willingly assimilate yourself to it, is to relinquish control over your natural state The environment physically alters you. Because weve physically altered it Ponce has uttered a cosmic truth The Mexico City mutation is real.Smog levels have steadily been dropping in Mexico City in recent years, but it remains above us, operating than anything else as a totem It symbolizes our species irrevocable dominance over the planet In places like the Valley of Mexico, where industry, urbanization, density, and the centuries have made the earth our violated dominion, the consequences of this reality haunt us It is, as Ponce says, unnatural It leads us into conflict with the elements, with fellow men, and with the gods.The planet seeks payback in Mexico City Earthquakes remain a spectral threat The massive 8.1 magnitude temblor that swept the city on September 19, 1985, is a wailing ghost that still rings far in the back of peoples minds An estimated ten thousand people died, but no one knows for sure The city was brought to its knees Off in the distance, usually invisible behind the smog, the Popocatpetl and Iztacchuatl volcanoes pose a subdued terrestrial menace Theyre dormant, but could they wake up one morning There are the freakish rains and thunderstorms, bringing pounding blasts of wind Neighborhoods flood, drowning kids and old ladies Hills or asphalt streets give way Trees snap and crush small cars The land and sky remind us every day that they remain older and powerful than anything we can bring to them.Among people, the threatening qualities of the environment sometime ignite a primal urgethe urge to kill Mexico City is by no means the most dangerous metropolis on earth Cities such as Washington, D.C., for example, have higher homicide rates But in the Aztec megacity death and murder acquire a disquieting intimacy with everyday life In page after page, the red note papers are filled with practically gleeful reports on the cruelest deaths, often accompanied by graphic photographs A French scientist who is held up on a busy road and shot in the face after being followed from the airport, dying days later An Italian man who is shot dead after refusing to cooperate with thieves on a bus The transgendered sex worker in Ecatepec whose head is rammed to mush by a huge cinder block at the hands of a client Bodies are found beheaded, burned in tanks of gasoline, mutilated, or beaten to death, blow by blow There are robberies gone bad, executions carried out in shadowy alleys, and crimes of violent passion In the age of narco warfare and the growing cult of the Santa Muertethe unofficial saint of holy deaththe killings numb us News of a death to start off the day and news of a death before going to bed at night Killings presented as common and as in your face as the traffic and smog.Every day the papers tell us how the urban claims its victims There are drownings, freak car accidents, vehicles turning over, indoor carbon monoxide poisonings, and horrible falls The claiming of victims is indiscriminate A wealthy person dies just as terribly as a poor one, and only the opulence or humility of their gravestones will mark their differences during life Living in Mexico City becomes a long risky slog through an infinitely treacherous landscape Some people are keenly aware of it, and it can drive them mad.William S Burroughs once described Mexico City as sinister and gloomy and chaotic, with the special chaos of a dream That was in the late 1940s, when D.F had a small fraction of the population it does now and the mountains and volcanoes that ring the basin were crisply visible on the horizon No Mexican really knew any other Mexican, Burroughs wrote, some fifty years after the experience, and when a Mexican killed someone which happened often , it was usually his best friend Mexico was basically an Oriental culture that reflected two thousand years of disease and poverty and degradation and stupidity and slavery and brutality and psychic and physical terrorism.Reading this, I instinctively respond with disgust of my own, tallying up all the offensive phrases Then I think about it again I think about all the writers whose attempts Ive seen to sum up the soul of Mexico in a single argumentative statement, from the romantic or the nationalistic, to the postmodern or celebratory Few are as raw, and as honest Burroughs looked in the citys heart and it looked alien, violent, and sinister to him, like a pathogen His experience illustrates the citys ability to swallow and permanently transform an individual This was where Burroughs perfected his dark bohemian lifestyledrug use, alcohol abuse, chasing young American guys for sex, fixing up his heroin on Dolores Street in Centro, just around the corner from where I sit In Mexico City, Burroughs forged his twisted relationship with death It is said Burroughs never lived or wrote the same again.The problem that Burroughs and so many others have identified, and which is not going away anytime soon, is a sustained struggle over equilibrium, a lost balance with the elements and with history The Aztecs who witnessed the original encounter with the Europeans must have felt the coming chaos Their entire system of things, they believed, was at the mercy of their gods, the custodians of the elements The earth they knew demanded sustenance To them, the citadel of temples at the center of their cityTenochtitlanwas the belly button of the moon As it was the center of the universe, according to their spiritual logic, all their gods were present The god of war, god of fire, the god of earth, the sun god, the moon goddess They had to be thanked somehow So the Aztecs built their empire on sacrificial credit, submitted untold amounts of human souls in ritual sacrifice to ensure the rising of the sun, the rains, and their way of life.They fed the land with blood Children and infants were sacrificed to Tlaloc, who required the tears of the young to wash over the earth with rain Slaves, virgins, and prisoners of war were slaughtered to dedicate new temples and to ring in the new year Their severed heads were placed on tzompantli racks on the citys central plaza for all to see.When they arrived, the Spanish regarded these practices as barbaric But in conquering Mexico, they replaced the system of ritual sacrifice with something arguably bloodier and brutal The Conquest was a spectacularly violent encounter, a foundational holocaust Once subdued, the surviving Indians watched their cities and temples be dismantled Their gods were replaced by images of Jesus Christ, his saints, and the new mother, sweet Guadalupe In the early years of the consolidation of New Spain, indigenous survivors succumbed to disease in overwhelming numbers, killing off entire lineages and turning thriving urban settlements into ghost towns Their world had been upended Cities disappeared, their ruins willowing into the brush, forgotten The force of the Conquest was so fierce, many Indians, one troubled priest wrote in the late sixteenth century, became apathetic Many refused medicine when they became sick, the priest wrote, choosing instead to die like brutes.I cant imagine the agony, unable to render to their godsTonantzn or Tlaloc or Huitzilopochtlias they had done since the dawn of their world But history marched on In the ensuing generations, Mexicans of all castes intermixed beyond order and recognition, spawning the new, idealized mestizo civilization With the boost from the Virgen de Guadalupe, everyone became a Roman Catholic Mexicans eventually let go of the Aztec gods, but that didnt mean the deities just disappeared into the cosmos In Mexico City it is regarded as a sad spiritual irony that the Metropolitan Cathedralbuilt on pre Hispanic holy landis sinking into the earth.The spiritual imbalance heightens the sense that Mexico City is a geography of real, physical risk and hostility But to blame the awesome power of a hostile environment on human religious practices alone would be impertinent Historians often categorize Mexico into three major periods its pre Hispanic, its colonial, and its modern During all three, the societys center is Mexico City, and in all of them, the city is driven by a culture of violence Violence against humans, violence among humans, and violence between the human race and its surroundings At each defining step in the history of Mexico, blood and death were on the watch Something deeper is at play here.In another one of those awful smoggy winter days spent huddling indoors in the Centro, smoke choking the room, Ponce and I meet again for an afternoon tequila His hair is wild and his skin is earthen bronze He is always dressed as if hes ready to run out his door and never come back, in trainers and sweatpants Ponce is so inspired and terrified by the air outside that he paces around, tensely holding an invisible ball of energy between his two open hands I am sprawled on the floor, illogically looking for cool air from the wooden planks.Mexico City, Ponce whistles, is a lake of fire.He sits down to keep drawing a psychedelic comic strip taking shape before him My mind races back to that winter bus ride to the east, at dusk, turning back to the image of a futuristic hell Mexico City shrouded in poisonous smog, proof of mans dominance over the elements In the shrinking light, I imagine brontosaurs lumbering up the hillsides and an orange pterodactyl soaring above me Is this how it looked since the beginning of time Around the first or second century A.D., on the south end of the valley, the geological record tells us, the Xitle volcano erupted near the Cuicuilco settlement, washing over the land in scorching lava This primordial violence wiped out the earliest known civilization that existed on the basins ring The settlement was virtually liquidated, leaving hardly an archaeological trace The lava cooled, slowly transforming into the stone with which later Mexicans built their pyramids and, later, used to build the Spaniards churches.A dramatic painting depicting the Xitle eruption is sometimes on view at the Museo de la Ciudad de Mxico On one side, a few of the earliest human inhabitants of Mexiconearly naked, holding spearsstand bravely above the hot hell below them Their expressions are grim but determined, as though they are thinking, This is where we were made to live This is who we are. The valley at their feet is a belching sea of red and orange 2011 Daniel HernandezDaniel Hernandez is our guide into Mexico Citys labyrinth of urban tribes, this vast twenty first century urban survival laboratory He writes about his experience as he lived it, with hungry and daring curiosity, bursts of stunning poetry, charming earnestness, penetrating intelligence, always without cliches Francisco Goldman, author of The Art of Political MurderConcise, pithy, honest, and clear eyed, Hernandez is a trustworthy, infallible guide through one of the most amazing cities on earth Kate Christensen, author of The Great Man and Trouble Simply brilliant A reader couldn t ask for a compassionate, daring, or honest guide to the world s most maddening mega city Daniel Alarcn, author of Lost City RadioDaniel Hernandez navigates the beautiful chaos of Mexico City with a reporter s tenacity, an adventurer s daring and an open heart that allows him to discover the history that lives inside him Gorgeously done Laurie Ochoa, co founder and editor Slake Los Angeles Down and Delirious in Mexico City is essential for anyone who cares about this confusing and misunderstood megalopolis, and particularly what it means to be young here.David Lida, author of First Stop in the New World This guy can really write Alma Guillermoprieto, author of Dancing with Cuba Let s Go Mexico City this isn t, and we re all the better for it Josh Kun, University of Southern California.Pitch perfect and incandescent An invitation to live Gabriela Jauregui, Author of Controlled Decay Down and Delirious in Mexico City The Aztec Metropolis Down the Twenty First Century Daniel Hernandez on FREE shipping qualifying offers MEXICO CITY, with some million inhabitants, is largest city Western Hemisphere Enormous growth Animals delirious, disoriented up down West Coast Animals Displaying unprecedented behaviors Experts know something isn t right Gov Waters offshore so lacking things like anchovies, sardines squid 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    • Down and Delirious in Mexico City: The Aztec Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century
    • 3.1
    • 246
    • Format Kindle
    • 320 pages
    • 1416577033
    • Daniel Hernandez
    • Anglais
    • 02 June 2016

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