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ጉ Free ಫ The Genius in All of Us: New Insights into Genetics, Talent, and IQ download pdf ጥ Ebook Author David Shenk ፶ ጉ Free ಫ The Genius in All of Us: New Insights into Genetics, Talent, and IQ download pdf ጥ Ebook Author David Shenk ፶ chapter oneGenes 2.0How Genes Really WorkContrary to what weve been taught, genes do not determine physical and character traits on their own Rather, they interact with the environment in a dynamic, ongoing process that produces and continually refines an individual.The sun begins to rise over an old river town, and through a fifth floor window of University Hospital, a newborn cries out her own birth announcement Her new, already sleep deprived parents hold her tightly and simply stare, partly in disbelief that this has actually happened, partly in awe of what lies ahead As she develops, who will she look like What will she be like What will be her strengths, her weaknesses Will she change the world or just scrape by Will she run a quick mile, paint a new idea, charm her friends, sing for millions Will she have any talent for anything Only the years will tell For right now, the parents dont really need to know the final outcomethey just need to know what sort of difference they can make How much of their newborn daughters personality and abilities are already predetermined What portion is still up for grabs What ingredients can they add, and what tactics should they avoid The fuzzy mix of hope, expectation, and burden begins .TONY SOPRANO And to think Im the cause of it.DR MELFI How are you the cause of it TONY SOPRANO Its in his blood, this miserable fucking existence My rotten fucking putrid genes have infected my kids soul Thats my gift to my son.Genes can be scary stuff if you dont understand them In 1994, psychologist Richard Herrnstein and policy analyst Charles Murray warned in their bestselling book The Bell Curve that we live in an increasingly stratified world where the cognitive elitethose with the best genesare and isolated from the cognitive genetic underclass Genetic partitioning, they called it There was no mistaking their message The irony is that as America equalizes the environmental circumstances of peoples lives, the remaining differences in intelligence are increasingly determined by differences in genes Putting it all together, success and failure in the American economy, and all that goes with it, are increasingly a matter of the genes that people inherit.Stark and terrifyingand thankfully quite mistaken The authors had fundamentally misinterpreted a number of studies, becoming convinced that roughly 60 percent of each persons intelligence comes directly from his or her genes But genes dont work that way There are no genetic factors that can be studied independently of the environment, explains McGill Universitys Michael Meaney And there are no environmental factors that function independently of the genome A trait emerges only from the interaction of gene and environment.While Herrnstein and Murray adhered to a particular ideological agenda, they also seem to have been genuinely hobbled in their analysis by a common misunderstanding of how genes work Weve all been taught that we inherit complex traits like intelligence straight from our parents DNA in the same way we inherit simple traits like eye color This belief is continually reinforced by the popular media As an illustration, USA Today recently explained heredity in this way Think of your own genetic makeup as the hand of cards you were dealt at conception With each conception in a family comes a new shuffling of the deck and a new hand Thats partly why little Bobby sleeps through the night as a baby, always behaves and seems to love math, while brother Billy is colicky, never listens and already is the head of a gang in kindergarten.Genes dictate Genes instruct Genes determine For than a century, this has been the widely accepted explanation of how each of us becomes us In his famous pea plant experiments of the 1850s and 60s, Gregor Mendel demonstrated that basic traits like seed shape and flower color were reliably passed from one generation to the next through dominant and recessive heritable factors Mendels phrase before the word gene was introduced After eight years and twenty eight thousand plants, Mendel had proved the existence of genesand seemed to prove that genes alone determined the essence of who we are Such was the unequivocal interpretation of early twentieth century geneticists.That notion is with us still Genes set the stage, affirms USA Today The environment has an impact on all of our lives, to be sure, but genes come first they set specific lower and upper limits of each persons potential abilities Where did your brother get that amazing singing voice How did you get so tall Why cant I dance How is she so quick with numbers Its in the genes, we say.Thats what The Bell Curve authors thought, too None of these writers realized that over the last two decades Mendels ideas have been thoroughly upgradedso much so that one large group of scientists now suggests that we need to wipe the slate clean and construct an entirely new understanding of genes.This new vanguard is a loose knit group of geneticists, neuroscientists, cognitive psychologists, and others, some of whom call themselves developmental systems theorists I call them interactionists because of their emphasis on the dynamic interaction between genes and the environment Not all of the interactionists views have yet been fully accepted, and they freely acknowledge their ongoing struggle to articulate the full implications of their findings But it already seems very clear that these implications are far reaching and paradigm shifting.To understand interactionism, you must first try to forget everything you think you know about heredity The popular conception of the gene as a simple causal agent is not valid, declare geneticists Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb The gene cannot be seen as an autonomous unitas a particular stretch of DNA which always produces the same effect Whether or not a length of DNA produces anything, what it produces, and where and when it produces it may depend on other DNA sequences and on the environment.Though Mendel couldnt detect it with his perfectly calibrated pea plant hybrids, genes are not like robot actors who always say the same lines in the exact same way It turns out that they interact with their surroundings and can say different things depending on whom they are talking to.This obliterates the long standing metaphor of genes as blueprints with elaborate predesigned instructions for eye color, thumb size, mathematical quickness, musical sensitivity, etc Now we can come up with a accurate metaphor Rather than finished blueprints, genes all twenty two thousand of them1are like volume knobs and switches Think of a giant control board inside every cell of your body.Many of those knobs and switches can be turned up down on off at any timeby another gene or by any minuscule environmental input This flipping and turning takes place constantly It begins the moment a child is conceived and doesnt stop until she takes her last breath Rather than giving us hardwired instructions on how a trait must be expressed, this process of gene environment interaction drives a unique developmental path for every unique individual.The new interactionists call it GxE for short It has become central to the understanding of all genetics Recognition of GxE means that we now realize that genes powerfully influence the formation of all traits, from eye color to intelligence, but rarely dictate precisely what those traits will be From the moment of conception, genes constantly respond to, and interact with, a wide range of internal and external stimulinutrition, hormones, sensory input, physical and intellectual activity, and other genesto produce a unique, custom tailored human machine for each persons unique circumstance Genes matter, and genetic differences will result in trait differences, but in the final analysis, each of us is a dynamic system, a creature of development.This new dynamic model of GxE genes multiplied by environment is very different from the old static model of G E genes plus environment Under the old paradigm, genes came first and set the stage They dealt each of us our first hand of cards, and only afterward could we add in environmental influences.The new model begins with interaction There is no genetic foundation that gets laid before the environment enters in rather, genes express themselves strictly in accordance with their environment Everything that we are, from the first moment of conception, is a result of this process We do not inherit traits directly from our genes Instead, we develop traits through the dynamic process of gene environment interaction In the GxE world, genetic differences still matter enormously But, on their own, they dont determine who we are.In fact, you did not even inherit your blue eyes or brown hair from your parents genes Not directly.This may sound crazy at first, because of how thoroughly weve been indoctrinated with Mendelian genetics The reality turns out to be much complicatedeven for pea plants Many scientists have understood this much complicated truth for years but have had trouble explaining it to the general public It is indeed a lot harder to explain than simple genetic determinism.To understand genes fully, we first need to take a step back and explain what they actually do Genes direct the production of proteins.Each of our cells contains a complete double strand of DNA, which in turn contains thousands of individual genes Each gene initiates the process of assembling amino acids into proteins Proteins are large, specialized molecules that help create cells, transport vital elements, and produce necessary chemical reactions There are many different protein types, and they provide the building blocks of everything from muscle fiber to eyeball collagen to hemoglobin We are, each one of us, the sum of our proteins.Genes contain the instructions for the formation of those proteins, and they direct the protein building process.But genes are not the only things influencing protein construction It turns out that the genetic instructions themselves are influenced by other inputs Genes are constantly activated and deactivated by environmental stimuli, nutrition, hormones, nerve impulses, and other genes.This explains how every brain cell and hair cell and heart cell in your body can contain all of your DNA but still perform very specialized functions It also explains how a tiny bit of genetic diversity goes a very long way human beings are distinct from one another not just because of our relatively few genetic differences, but also because every moment of our ongoing lives actively influences our own genetic expression.Think of GxE as baking a cake, suggests Cambridge University biologist Patrick Bateson A hundred cooks may start out with nearly the same ingredients but will in the end produce very different cakes While the slight difference in ingredients guarantees that differences will exist, it doesnt dictate what those differences will be The actual end result differences arise out of the process Development is chemistry, says Bateson, and the end product cannot simply be reduced to its ingredients.Similarly, the mere presence of a certain gene does not automatically produce a specific type or number of proteins First, every gene has to be activatedswitched on, or expressedin order to initiate protein construction.Further, geneticists have recently discovered that some geneswe dont yet know how manyare versatile In some cases, the exact same gene can produce different proteins depending on how and when it is activated.All of this means that, on their own, most genes cannot be counted on to directly produce specific traits They are active participants in the developmental process and are built for flexibility Anyone seeking to describe them as passive instruction manuals is actually minimizing the beauty and power of the genetic design.So why do I have brown eyes like my mom and red hair like my dad In practical terms, there are many elementary physical traits like eye, hair, and skin color where the process is near Mendelianwhere certain genes produce predictable outcomes most of the time But looks can be deceiving a simple Mendel like result doesnt mean that there wasnt gene environment interaction Even in the case of eye color, says Patrick Bateson, the notion that the relevant gene is the only cause is misconceived, because of all the other genetic and environmental ingredients Indeed, Victor McKusick, the Johns Hopkins geneticist widely regarded as the father of clinical medical genetics, reminds us that in some instances two blue eyed parents can produce children with brown eyes Recessive genes cannot explain such an event gene environment interaction can.When it comes to complex traits like physical coordination, personality, and verbal intelligence, gene environment interaction inevitably moves the process even further away from simple Mendelian patterns.What about single genetic mutations that predictably cause diseases such as Huntingtons disease Single gene diseases do exist and account for roughly 5 percent of the total disease burden in developed countries But its important not to let such diseases give the wrong impression about how healthy genes work A disconnected wire can cause a car to break down, explains Patrick Bateson But this does not mean that the wire by itself is responsible for making the car move Similarly, a genetic defect causing a series of problems does not mean that the healthy version of that gene is single handedly responsible for normal function.Helping the public understand gene environment interaction is a particular burden, because it is so enormously complex It will never have the same easy, snap your fingers resonance that our old misleading understanding of genes had for us Given that, the interactionists are lucky to have Patrick Bateson on their side A former biological secretary to the Royal Society of London and one of the worlds leading public educators about heredity, Bateson also carries a powerful symbolic message with his surname It was his grandfathers famous cousin, William Bateson, who, a century ago, first coined the word genetics and helped popularize the earlier, simpler notion of genes as self contained information packets that directly produce traits Now the third generation Bateson is helping to significantly update that public understanding From the Hardcover edition.Shenk tells engaging stories, lucidly explains complex research and offers fresh insights in the nature of exceptional peformance,,,,such efforts have resulted in a deeply interesting and important book David Shenk may not be a genius yet, but give him time New York Times Book Review Inspired The Genius in All of Us has quietly blown my mind Salona welcome new bookyoull find Shenk a fluid, easy writer The Genius in All of Us is a quick, compelling read The Boston Globe Empoweringmyth bustinghighly readableentertaining KIRKUS REVIEWS Intent on burying the concept of inborn genius, Shenk uses the 128 pages of The Argument to drive home how mistaken the notion of being genetically destined at birth to be a Mozart or a Michael Jordan is For genes arent the inalterable essences that environmental effects merely help out rather, genes and environment interact to realize a persons potential in a constant and complicated process that Shenk attractively exemplifies through the athletic life of Ted Williams, who began hitting practice at age six and, equally important, never gave it up also, considered to have magically sharp sight, he tested only high normal upon entering naval aviationthe thing was, he developed himself to, as Ty Cobb said, see of the ball than any man alive En route to the startling revelation that Lamarckism variation by inheritance, not Darwinian natural selection has truth in it, after all, Shenk corrects common knowledge about what twin studies and IQ tests really show clarifies the arguably most misunderstood genetics term, heritable and scientifically revives faith in not just practice and determination but also parenting and lifestyle as crucial factors, along with genes, in the realization of talents Since this flies in the face of a century of genetic determinism, Shenk employs the equally engrossing 141 pages of The Evidence to cite, quote, paraphrase, and comment upon the sources for virtually every assertion in The Argument Booklist, starred review An inspiring and liberating book It s a powerful antidote to the genetic determinism rampant in the Age of the Genome, and an instructive guide, grounded in science, to living a enriching life STEVEN JOHNSON, author of The Invention of Air, Ghost Map, Everything Bad is Good for You, Mind Wide Open, Emergence, and Interface Culture This book, both rigorous and accessible, is a close study of the idea of genius, an investigation of popular misconceptions about genetics, and an examination of the American virtue of self determination It is written with assurance, insight, clarity, and wit ANDREW SOLOMON, author of The Noonday Demon National Book Award Winner, 2001 A great book David Shenk handily dispels the myth that one must be born a genius From consistently whacking the ball out of the park to composing ethereal piano sonatas, Shenk convincingly makes the case for the potential genius that lies in all of us RUDOLPH E TANZI, PH.D., Joseph P and Rose F KennedyProfessor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School Director, Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital David Shenk sweeps aside decades of misconceptions about genetics and shows that by overstating the importance of genes, we ve understated the potential of ourselves.This is a persuasive and inspiring book that will make you think anew about your own life and our shared future DANIEL H PINK, author of Driveand A Whole New Mind In clear, forceful language, backed up by a boatload of science, David Shenk delivers a message that should be read by every parent, educator, and policy maker who cares about the future of our children The Genius in All of Us convincingly debunks the genes are destiny argument when it comes to human talent, and will force you to rethink everything from IQ tests and twins studies to child rearing practices Shenk s book turns Baby Mozart on his head, and will give pause a hopeful, empowering pause to parents who wish to nurture excellence in their children STEPHEN S HALL, author of Wisdom From Philosophy to Neuroscience David Shenk freshens and transforms a familiar subject to reveal all the interacting forces and factors that make us who we are Development is a tricky business and Shenk understands this By focusing his considerable writing talents on this terribly important topic, he has provided parents, policymakers, and educators with a book that will help them cut through the noise and make sense of every child s development MARK S BLUMBERG, Ph.D., F Wendell Miller Professor of Psychology,UniversityofIowa editor in chief, Behavioral Neuroscience and author, Freaks of Nature What Anomalies Tell Us about Development and Evolution The importance of David Shenk s book is that he has made accessible to a wide audience the advances in the understanding of how each person develops I congratulate him SIR PATRICK BATESON,FRS, Emeritus Professor of Ethology, Cambridge University former Biological Secretary of the Royal Society UK and co author, Design For A Life How Behaviour Develops Watch Genius on National Geographic View schedule and show information Anthology series focusing the untold stories of world s most brilliant innovators Girl Genius Girl is written by Professors Phil Kaja Foglio TPU, with drawings Prof P Volume One was inked Brian Snoddy Volumes Two Three were colored Mark McNabb Elizabeth Gilbert Your elusive creative genius TED Talk Elizabeth muses impossible things we expect from artists geniuses shares radical idea that, instead rare person being a genius, all us have It funny, personal surprisingly moving talk A Heartbreaking Work Staggering Dave Eggers A FREE shipping qualifying offers This beautifully ragged, laugh out loud funny utterly unforgettable book San Francisco Chronicle Bestseller Pulitzer Prize Finalist that redefines both family narrative for twenty first century Genius Hour Where Passions Come Alive Research Week week hour students are starting to research their ideas couldn t come at better time because this Stream Watch your Favorite TV Shows, Movies Live S E Changing Guard With winter bearing down Arctic, Alaskans race prepare themselves homesteads before freeze overtakes land MakeMeGeniusCom Science Videos, Preschoolers Lessons in Animation Cartoon videos ks , ks, k, grade, grade MAD MEAT GENIUS 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corrections should sent Erie County Public Library Obituary Search We maintain obituary index Erie County, Pennsylvania, present database contains records includes December The Genius in All of Us: New Insights into Genetics, Talent, and IQ


    • The Genius in All of Us: New Insights into Genetics, Talent, and IQ
    • 2.2
    • 127
    • Relié
    • 400 pages
    • 0307387305
    • David Shenk
    • Anglais
    • 12 July 2016

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