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┧ Format Kindle [ All the Single Ladies: Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation (English Edition) ] ▋ Book By Rebecca Traister ◂

┧  Format Kindle [ All the Single Ladies: Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation (English Edition) ] ▋ Book By Rebecca Traister ◂ ┧ Format Kindle [ All the Single Ladies: Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation (English Edition) ] ▋ Book By Rebecca Traister ◂ All the Single Ladies CHAPTER ONE Watch Out for That Woman The Political and Social Power of an Unmarried Nation The contemporary wave of single women was building in the very same years that I was heading off to college, though I hadnt realized it The early 1990s was the period in which reverberations of the social and political revolutions of my mothers generation were manifesting as swiftly changing marriage and reproductive patterns, which, in turn, would create a current of political possibility for independent women in America On October 11, 1991, a thirty five year old law professor, Anita Faye Hill, appeared before the Senate Judiciary Committee to testify about the sexual harassment shed experienced while working for Clarence Thomas, a D.C Circuit Judge nominated by President George H W Bush to fill the Supreme Court seat of the retiring civil rights hero, Thurgood Marshall A native of rural Lone Tree, Oklahoma, Hill was the youngest of thirteen children raised by Baptist farmers her grandfather and great grandparents had been slaves in Arkansas She was valedictorian of her high school class and attended Yale Law School, worked for Thomas at both the Department of Education and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and taught contract law at the University of Oklahoma She was not married As cameras recorded every second, broadcasting to a rapt and tense nation, Hill sat before the all white, all male Senate Judiciary Panel and told them in a careful, clear voice of the sexually crude ways in which Thomas had spoken to her during the years she worked for him she detailed her former bosss references to pornographic movie stars, penis size, and pubic hair in professional contexts In turn, she was pilloried by the conservative press, spoken to with skepticism and insult by many on the committee, and portrayed by other witnesses as irrational, sexually loose, and perhaps a sufferer of erotomania,1 a rare psychological disorder that causes women to fantasize sexual relationships with powerful men Wyoming Senator Alan Simpson questioned Hills proclivities a term that the conservative columnist William Safire suggested was a code word for homosexuality2 One pundit, David Brock, called Hill a little bit nutty and a little bit slutty Called in front of the committee after her testimony, John Doggett, a former classmate of Thomass and an acquaintance of Hills, described Hill as somewhat unstable and surmised that she had fantasized about my being interested in her romantically He guessed, based on their brief social interactions, that she was having a problem with being rejected by men she was attracted to at another point, Doggett noted that Hill seemed to be lonely in this town As Hill would later write of her experience, Much was made in the press of the fact that I was single, though the relevance of my marital status to the question of sexual harassment was never articulated.3 The relevance of her single status was how it distinguished her from established expectations of femininity Hill had no husband to vouch for her virtue, no children to affirm her worth, as womens worth had been historically understood Her singleness, Hill felt at the time, allowed her detractors to place her as far outside the norms of proper behavior as they could Members of the Judiciary, she wrote, could not understand why I was not attached to certain institutions, notably marriage, and were thus left to surmise that she was single because I was unmarriageable or opposed to marriage, the fantasizing spinster or the man hater The lingering assumptionborn of the same expectations that I had chafed at as a kid, reading novelswas that the natural state of adult womanhood involved being legally bound to a man Perhaps especially in the comparatively new world of female professional achievement, in which a woman might be in a position, as an equivalently educated professional peer of a judicial nominee to the Supreme Court, to offer testimony that could imperil his career, marriage remained the familiar institution that might comfortably balance out this new kind of parity, and would offer the official male validation and abrogate her questioners ability to depict her as a spinster fantasist In raising questions about her marital status and her mental stability, Hill wrote, senators were attempting to establish a relationship between marriage, values, and credibility and prompt people to wonder why I, a thirty five year old Black woman, had chosen to pursue a career and to remain singlean irrelevant shift of focus that contributed to the conclusion that I was not to be believed Indeed, Hills testimony was not believed by the members of the committee, at least not enough to make an impact on their decision Clarence Thomas was confirmed to the Supreme Court days after her appearance before the Judiciary But Hill was not some contemporary Hester Prynne, doomed to a life in exile Instead, her appearance had a lasting impact on the country and its power structures The term sexual harassment entered the lexicon and the American consciousness, allowing women, married and single, to make sense of and lodge objections to workplace harassment it offered us a view of how behavior long viewed as harmless was actually a form of discrimination and subjugation that hurt women as a class Just as long lasting was the impact that the vision of Hills being grilled by a panel of white men had on Americas representative politics In 1991, there had been only two women serving in the United States Senate, an embarrassing circumstance that the hearings put in stark national relief A photograph published by the New York Times showed a group of Congresss few female representatives, including Patricia Schroeder and Eleanor Holmes Norton, running up the Capitol steps to stop the proceedings to demand that Hill be allowed to testify The spectacle of Hills treatment by the committee spurred a reckoning with the nations monochromatic and male representative body The year after her testimony, an unprecedented number of women ran for the Senate Four of them won One, Washingtons Patty Murray, has repeatedly explained that the Thomas hearings had helped spur her to political action I just kept looking at this committee, going God, whos saying what I would say if I was there, shes said I mean, all men, not saying what I would say I just felt so disoriented.4 Another, Carole Moseley Braun of Illinois, became the first and, so far, only African American woman elected to the Senate They called 1992 The Year of the Woman Though Hills life and career were certainly upended by the attention as well as by the death and rape threats that came in the wake of her testimony, they were not cut short or ended She was not permanently ostracized, professionally or personally Today, she teaches law at Brandeis and lives in Boston with her partner of than a decade Part of the reason that Hill was not wholly written off as a social aberration was because by the early 1990s, she wasnt A generation of women was, like Hill, living, working, and occupying public space on its own The percentage of women between the ages of thirty five and forty four who were married had fallen from about 87 percent in 1960 and 1970 to 73 percent in 1990.5 Women began, in the nineties, to embrace their own sexuality and sexual expression in a different way, Hill told me in 2013 Hill may have looked little like the recent past, but she was very much the face of the future, surely part of what made her discomfiting enough to send senators into paroxysms As Alan Simpson urged the committee, citing the many warnings he claimed to have received about Hill, Watch out for this woman 6 In the early 1990s, there were so many women to watch out for The Great Crossover Less than a year after the Thomas hearings, Vice President Dan Quayle gave a campaign trail speech at the Commonwealth Club in San Francisco, during which he offered his theory on what was behind the Los Angeles race riots that had followed the verdict in the Rodney King trial The lawless social anarchy that we saw, Quayle argued, is directly related to the breakdown of the family structure To illustrate this point, Quayle took an unexpected turn, laying into a television character The eponymous heroine of CBSs Murphy Brown, played by Candice Bergen, was about to give birth to a baby without being marriedor romantically attachedto the childs father Quayle was concerned that in doing so, Murphy, who he noted supposedly epitomizes todays intelligent, highly paid professional woman, was mocking the importance of fathers by bearing a child alone and calling it just another lifestyle choice.7 Quayles comments would land him, fictional Murphy Brown, and her fictional baby, Avery, on the front of the New York Times, making the characters unmarried status far emblematic than it would have been otherwise Of course, Quayles concern hadnt really been about Murphy he had been unspooling some classic conservative rhetoric about how welfare programs discourage marriage when hed thrown his pop culture curveball Quayles anxiety over the possibility that new models of motherhood and womanhood, unhooked from marriage, might be taking hold across income brackets was palpable A new reality was setting in If women could live independently, many would do so, and as they did, men would become less central to economic security, social standing, sexual life, and, as it turned out, to parenthood Though Quayle surely didnt realize it at the time, 1992 was at the heart of what researchers would later dub the great crossover.8 Not only were the early nineties the years during which the marriage age was rising they were the point at which the marriage age was rising above the age of first birth It was the reversal of a very old cultural and religious norm, purportedly a bedrock of female identity and familial formation, though not always a reflection of real life, in which premarital sex and pregnant brides had always existed However, officially, public codes of respectability had held that marriage was to precede childbearing Now, that sequence was being scrambled, and amongst the many Americans panicking about it were the men who had long enjoyed relatively unchallenged control of politics Two years after Quayles speech, Pennsylvania senate candidate Rick Santorum gave a speech again emphasizing the link between unmarried motherhood and social chaos, claiming that We are seeing the fabric of this country fall apart, and its falling apart because of single moms In 1994, Jeb Bush, son of former president George H W Bush, then running for governor in Florida, said that women on welfare should be able to get their life together and find a husband and, soon after, published a book in which he argued that the reason young women have babies outside of wedlock is because there is no longer a stigma attached to this behavior, suggesting that maybe the stigma should return In 1993, Bill Clinton appointed Joycelyn Elders, an outspoken advocate of humane drug laws and abortion rights, as Surgeon General of the United States The following year, at a United Nations conference on AIDS, Elders caused a scandal by voicing her support of teaching masturbation as part of sex education It was a perfectly sane message, especially in the context of the AIDS epidemic But so freighted was Elderss simple advocacy of independent sexual pleasure, achievable without a partner and with no chance of procreation, that the president who had appointed her asked her to resign It was a fraught period, Anita Hill told me in 2013, in which some Americans were still trying to hold on to the idea that we lived in the 1950s, this Leave It to Beaver world This imagined white universe, in which sex was hetero and always procreative and women were wives and mothers who lived in middle class comfort and embraced designated gender roles, had never actually existed for most women, Hill said, but was held up as an American ideal Now, even in pop culture, Leave It to Beaver had given way to the irreverent Roseanne, the sitcom about a working class nuclear family in which the eponymous heroine joked of her loving marriage as like a life sentence with no hope for parole More broadly, nuclear families were being joined on television by a flood of images of women unbound from marriages and families altogether Beginning in 1993, Queen Latifah anchored a group of Brooklyn roommates on FOXs Living Single the next year, NBC answered with the white, Manhattan version Friends From 1994 to 1996, journalist Candace Bushnell penned a weekly newspaper column called Sex and the City it would go on to become a book and a smash HBO series Terri McMillans Waiting to Exhale, a 1992 novel about four female friends, some recently jilted, juggling the personal and the professional, remained on the bestseller list for months, and would be made into a movie Four years later, British writer Helen Fielding published Bridget Joness Diary, and was credited with kicking off a new publishing genre, chick lit, devoted to the stories of women, whom Bridgets best friend would, in self parody, describe as a pioneer generation daring to refuse to compromise in love and relying on our own economic power As the millennium dawned, it was impossible to watch out for all the women who were coming to change America Strange Stirrings If women slowed their rush to the altar in huge numbers starting in the 1990s, their ability to do so was built directly on political, economic, social, and sexual victories won by the previous generation, during what is commonly known as the Second Wave of the womens movement Several Second Wave feminists would remind me pointedly during my research for this book that my generation had far from invented contemporary habits of marital abstinence or delay by many measures, theirs had And, to some degree, theyre right Many women whose consciousness had been raised and opportunities expanded by feminism actively decided, for political and personal reasons, to postpone or forego marriage They didnt do so in numbers large enough to create a demographic earthquake, to change the marrying behaviors of the masses, at least not right away Because while its victories would transform the landscape in ways that would make it far possible for my generation to delay marriage, the Second Wave was not built on opposition to marriage, but rather a desire to address its suffocating circumstances The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the Unites States Each suburban wife struggled with it alone As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night, she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question Is this all 9 Is this all Betty Friedans first paragraph sliced the mid century American situation for middle class white women to its quick asserting that the ennui, anger, and unhappiness experienced by millions of American women was the product of the millions of words spilled by experts assuring women that their role was to seek fulfillment as wives and mothers These sages had spent a decade and a half, Friedan reported, telling women how to catch a man and keep him that truly feminine women do not want careers, higher education, political rightsthe independence and the opportunities that the old fashioned feminists fought for Those women whod been raised with the limited scope of female possibility offered by mid twentieth century America, Friedan argued, believed that All they had to do was devote their lives from earliest girlhood to finding a husband and bearing children The Feminine Mystique would sell 1.4 million copies of its first paperback printing and, though its popularity was likely a symptom of the fact that Friedans ideas were already in circulation and gaining steam in other quarters, it would be widely credited as having kicked off the Second Wave.10 Early marriage and domestic confinement were so pervasive for middle class white women in the middle of the twentieth century that the nations most mass, conscious move to emancipate women erupted directly in response to it Yet, funnily enough, as the legal scholar Rachel Moran argues, while the feminist movement of the 1970s was in part a direct response to these conditions of early and pervasive marriage, the ironic side effect was that single women had almost no place in the underpinnings of the movement As much as The Feminine Mystique was a cry against the limitations that early marriage and motherhood imposed on women, it did not assume or even consider that marriage itself was the problematic element, or that it might ever be optional for women Friedans vision of female empowerment entailed the expansion of activity outside the domestic sphere, but it did not question the primacy of that sphere itself Friedans reflexive connections between male attention and female fulfillmentas well as the rather dim regard in which she held most single womenare evident throughout her book.11 Strangely, a number of psychiatrists state that, in their experience, unmarried women patients were happier than married ones, writes Friedan with obvious perplexity Elsewhere, she cites Susan B Anthony as the early feminist who most closely resembled the myth of the embittered shrew, conceding generously, she must have thought that while Anthony felt betrayed when the other suffragists started to marry and have babies, she did not end up some bitter spinster with a cat When Friedan, who would co found and become the first president of the National Organization for Women in 1966, was asked about NOWs mission in a television interview, she replied that the groups message was about revising the conditions that prevent women from easily combining marriage and motherhood and work.12 The groups mission statement amplified this intention, noting that NOW did not accept the traditional assumption that a woman has to choose between marriage and motherhood, on the one hand, and a serious participation in industry or the professions on the other We believe that a true partnership between the sexes demands a different concept of marriage, an equitable sharing of the responsibilities13 It was and remains a revolutionary vision, but the organization was not the National Organization of Married Women, and yet there was no hint of recognition that not every womans life would or should include marriage and children, in that order This was only one way in which Friedans vision was blinkered In addition to her inability to conceive of middle class white women who might not want the youthful unions into which they were being nudged, Friedan also didnt consider the population of American women who were already altering marriage patterns, who had in recent years been marrying at declining rates and at later ages, who had been working outside the home for longer than that, supporting themselves and sometimes their children, both alongside, and independent of, husbands Friedan did not include black women in her vision Black women, who experienced both gender and racial wage discrimination, who were less likely than their white peers to have college educations or economic power, and whose families and potential husbands were also less likely to have college educations or economic power, were also far less likely than white women to have the choice of not working outside their homes They were therefore far less likely to experience the kind of domestic disenchantments from which Friedans readers suffered Black women had in fact already made some of the very points for which Friedan was being hailed Philadelphia lawyer Sadie Alexander had argued in the 1930s that women yearned to place themselves again among the producers of the world by involving themselves in work that resulted in the production of goods that have a price value.14 Not only would this increase womens status and security in the world, Alexander argued, in advance of Friedan, but the satisfaction which comes to the woman in realizing that she is a producer makes for peace and happiness, the chief requisites in any home Even worse was that at practically the same moment that Friedan was being credited with jump starting the womens movement by advocating extramarital wage earning that black women had been doing for generations, black women were being blamed for a different sort of social disruption Two years after the publication of The Feminine Mystique, women whose experiences had foregrounded its philosophies were at the center of a national conversation about the devolution of the black family unit and the social and economic blight it was presumed to have precipitated In 1965, Assistant Secretary of Labor and future New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan released a report called The Negro Family The Case for National Action It was, in some ways, a thoughtful account of the systemic racial inequality that had plagued the nation since its founding, with Moynihan arguing that the American Republic, which at birth was flawed by the institution of Negro slavery, and which throughout its history has been marred by the unequal treatment of Negro citizens long had fallen short of the full promise of the Declaration of Independence Moynihan rightly acknowledged the development of middle class white suburbs and abandonment of poor cities to African Americans as having created a class chasm between the races, noting that because of this new housing patternmost of which has been financially assisted by the Federal governmentit is probable that the American school system has become , rather than less segregated in the past two decades Yet, despite these insights into the unequal histories and prospects of Americas black and white populations, Moynihan boiled his argument down to one, punishing point that the root of black poverty lay with the breakdown of marital norms for which nonconforming women were responsible The deterioration of the Negro family, Moynihan argued, was tied to the high number of dissolved marriages, illegitimate births and the fact that almost one fourth of Negro families are headed by women There was some logic here In economically unstable communities, raising children on single, low incomes is an inherently unstable proposition But there was no consideration that those single incomes were a result as much as a cause, that reduced economic opportunity made marriage a less beneficial option for women, that womens work outside the home was, rather than a detriment, key to keeping disadvantaged black communities and families afloat Instead, Moynihan positioned female independence from men and dominance within the family at the center of a tangle of pathology that created a matriarchal structure which, because it is out of line with the rest of American society, and its patriarchal structure, seriously retards the progress of the group as a whole Comfort to the Singles In the burgeoning feminist movement, the voices of figures radical than Friedan began to get notice for their arguments that women should not simply move toward the workforce, but away from marriage as the ratifying stamp of female worth In 1969, University of Chicago sociology professor Marlene Dixon wrote that the institution of marriage is the chief vehicle for the perpetuation of the oppression of women In a very real way the role of wife has been the genesis of womens rebellion throughout history The next year, feminist Sheila Cronan wrote, Since marriage constitutes slavery for women Freedom for women cannot be won without the abolition of marriage Radical feminist writer Andrea Dworkin famously commented that Marriage as an institution developed from rape as a practice In 1970, the median age of first marriage for women remained under twenty one, and 69.4 percent of Americans over the age of eighteen were married.15 This is remarkable, in part, because of other social and political upheavals already well underway In 1960, the FDA had approved the birth control pill for contraceptive use, an early step toward or symptom of what would become the sexual revolution And, in 1969, the Stonewall riots had kicked off a gay rights movement that would be driven explicitly by the fight for acceptance by women and men who had no desire to partner with members of the opposite sex The emergence of gay women as a political faction was not an altogether welcome development within the Second Wave Friedan herself would famously refer to lesbians as a lavender menace and, in later years, would voice her loathing16 of women she called man hating feminists, whose down with men, down with marriage, down with childbearing rhetoric and actions threatened to wrest control of feminism from women who wanted equality but who also wanted to keep on loving their husbands and children.17 In fact, for some time, the intersections of the gay rights and womens rights movements seemed mostly to provide evidence both of the strength of homophobia amongst social progressives and gender iconoclasts, and of how inconceivable it remained even to many 1970s feminists that heterosexual women might live willingly single The only way some feminists were able to absorb the notion of a woman who didnt necessarily want to marry a man was to understand her as homosexual At least until Gloria came along In the early 70s, feminism got a new and powerful popularizer, a woman who would come to stand insufficiently and often to her own dismay for the diverse, cacophonous, flawed, and multifaceted movement whose sometimes spiky messages she was so capable of transmitting smoothly to the broader public Gloria Steinem had come to New York from her native Toledo, and began a successful career as a writer for print and television she was mentioned alongside other new journalism stars like Tom Wolfe, and was a stylish darling of New Yorks 1960s media scene, often photographed in the company of well known men, many of whom she was dating Steinem was late to feminism In 1962, shed written a story about contraception that laid out the ways in which women were asked to choose between career and marriage the next year she did an undercover expos of Hugh Hefners sex themed Playboy clubs However, her political engagements were with the Democratic Party, the civil rights, and antiwar movements they didnt yet extend to the burgeoning womens movement In 1963, the year that the Feminine Mystique was published, Steinem had written The Beach Book, a guide to travel and tanning that featured a foil cover flap that readers might use to catch rays Even without a raised consciousness, Steinems life, by the late 1960s, served as a striking emblem of the eras new possibilities for women She was unmarried, widely traveled, professionally successful, and open about her sexual appetites In a 1968 television interview, Canadian broadcaster Moses Znaimer asked thirty four year old Steinem about her reputation as a chick with a good sense of the vibrations he questioned how shed gone undercover at Playboy, since he thought you had to be stacked to be a bunny girl he asked if she cooked she was ironing in the interview He asked her if she ever wanted to marry Eventually, Steinem replied, but it keeps receding two years into the comfortable distance Did she think about it a lot Yes, she said You imagine what it would be like to be married to people youre going out with maybe its a ladys thing You think, Lets see, my name would be Gloria Burgermeister nah In the interviews final question, Znaimer asks Steinem what she wants to be when you grow up Free, Steinem replies, and old and a little mean.18 A year later, Steinem wrote a piece called After Black Power, Womens Liberation, in which she reported on the growing feminist movement That same year, while covering an abortion speak out in Greenwich Village, Steinem, who had had an abortion in Europe in her early twenties, experienced a conversion Within months, she was testifying in front of the Senate Judiciary on behalf of the Equal Rights Amendment she co founded, along with Shirley Chisholm, Bella Abzug, Myrlie Evers, Fanny Lou Hamer, and Friedan, the National Womens Political Caucus In 1971, she and Letty Cottin Pogrebin launched Ms magazine, the title of which rejected the notion that marital status should be the identifying feature of a woman Steinems most powerful gift was her ability to synthesize radical sentiments into appealingly pithy, era defining sound bites We are becoming the men we wanted to marry, she said, clarifying that an opposition to marriage need not be about the rejection of men or love, but rather about the filling out and equaling up of female life A woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle, she was often credited with coining actually, the phrase came from Australian educator Irina Dunn19 More sharply, Steinem argued that marriage rendered women half people, and once explained that she had not married, and would not marry, because, I cant mate in captivity It was a funny line, borne of deep dissatisfactions and anger over the way life had been until now Not everyone was charmed I guess she gave some comfort to the singles, Betty Friedan would later say of Steinem But really, Gloria was a phony She always had a man And I used to catch her hiding behind a Vogue magazine at Kenneths having her hair streaked.20 Steinem herself made the same point to me in 2012, noting that she had been somewhat protected from certain kinds of man hating caricature and denigration because I always had a man in my life However, that was part of what made her so useful when it came to offering a fetching vision of unmarried life than had previously been available Steinems beauty, her independence, her unapologetic heterosexual appetites, and her steady stream of suitors could not easily be written off as froideur, as man hating, as homosexuality What was so disruptive about Steinem, and other women who were living like her, whether or not they had men on their arms, was that it seemed she just really enjoyed being free More young unmarried women were about to join her, thanks to two landmark cases decided in the early seventies The Supreme Court had made birth control legal for married couples in the 1965 case, Griswold v Connecticut, basing its decision on the opinion that a ban violated the privacy of the marital bedrooms innermost sanctum But, for single women, the relevant decision came seven years later In 1972s Eisenstadt v Baird, the Court struck down a law that prohibited the sale of contraception to unmarried persons, thus affirming the right of the individual, married or single, to be free from unwarranted governmental intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bear or beget a child The decision affirmed both parties within a heterosexual union as individual entities with rights, a break from some long standing principles of marital law, which had, in various forms over two centuries, meant that women forfeited many elements of their identities and their liberties upon marrying The marital couple is not an independent entity with a mind and heart of its own, wrote Justice William Brennan in his decision, but an association of two individuals each with a separate intellectual and emotional make up It was like a legal equivalent of Ms Magazine the recognition that Americans rights should neither be circumscribed nor made expansive based simply on whether they were wed As the historian Nancy Cott writes, by refusing to deny single persons the privacy that married couples were granted, Eisenstadt moved toward displacing marriage from the seat of official morality.21 One year later, the court ruled in Roe v Wade that abortion was legal The decision affected married and single women equally But, for the unmarried, legal abortion provided yet another tool to protect their ability to live outside of marriage By 1973, the idea of independent womanhood was worming its way into the national imagination persistently enough that Newsweek published a cover story that fulsomely asserted that singlehood has emerged as an intensely ritualizedand newly respectablestyle of American life It is finally becoming possible to be both single and whole.22 And, in 1974, Congress passed the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, making it easier for women to secure credit cards, bank loans, and mortgages, and to buy their own homes While the womens movement had not been explicitly driven by efforts to advocate for single women, what it had succeeded at doing, via its impact on politics, economics, and the law, was to create options besides or in advance of marriage With every passing year in the 1970s, there were simply ways to valorize female existence jobs to apply for, flings to have, money to earn As these new temptations clashed with the retro realities of marriages begun in a pre feminist era, the divorce rate skyrocketed, hitting close to 50 percent through the late 1970s and 1980s The divorce boom had a huge impact on never or not yet married women First, it created single people, helping to slowly destigmatize the figure of the woman without a ring on her finger It also forced a very public reckoning with marriage as an institution of variable quality The realization that a bad marriage might be bad enough to cause a painful split provided ammunition to those women who preferred to abstain from marriage than to enter a flawed one What the womens movement of the 1970s did, ultimately, was not to shrink marriage, or the desire for male companionship, as a reality for many women, but rather to enlarge the rest of the world to such an extent that marriages shadow became far less likely to blot out the sun of other possibilities As legal scholar Rachel Moran writes, One of the great ironies of second wave feminism is that it ignored single women as a distinct constituency while creating the conditions that increasingly enabled women to forego marriage.23 At the conclusion of the 1970s, the number of never married persons was at its lowest24 ever mostly because the calculation included the enormous swell of married, now divorcing, Baby Boomers , but the rate of women who were getting married was beginning to slow noticeably, and the median age of first marriage had inched up to twenty two In 1981, Ronald Reagan cruised into the Oval Office on a wave of aspersions cast on women he depicted as relying on government assistance in place of husbands, or in his parlance, welfare queens His ascension had come on the back of, and in tandem with, the rise of the New Right, an alliance of fiscal and social conservatives aligned around a commitment to religious righteousness and reversing the victories of twentieth century social progressives He struck the Equal Rights Amendment from the Republican Partys platform, where it had remained since 1940 he supported the so called Human Life Amendment, which would have banned almost all abortions, and defined life as beginning at fertilization It was morning in post feminist America, and the backlash, against the womens movement and the single women whose swelling numbers seemed to emblematize its success most uncomfortably, was in full force In 1985, a study conducted by male researchers from Harvard and Yale concluded that a never married, university educated forty year old woman had only a 2.6 percent chance of ever marrying It spurred Newsweek to publish its infamous cover story The Marriage Crunch, in which it made the famously inaccurate claim that single women at age forty were likely to be killed by terrorists than to marry People published photos of unmarried celebrities under the headline Are These Old Maids 25 and warned that most single women over thirty five can forget about marriage The social and cultural resistance to the spurning of marriage was evident And yet, women kept right on not marrying In 1990, the median age for first marriage for women jumped to nearly twenty four, the highest it had been in the century in which it had been recorded The future had arrived With it had come echoes of the past advances of unmarried women, this time threatening the status quo with the sexual and economic power won for them by previous generations Rising to meet them would be new iterations of old political and cultural opposition, figures anxious to corral these s back into the marital fold Now Abstention from or delay of marriage may have been a conscious choice for some women in the 1970s and 1980s, but it has now simply become a mass behavior The most radical of feminist ideasthe disestablishment of marriagehas, terrifyingly for many conservatives, been so widely embraced as to have become habit, drained of its political intent, but ever potent insofar as it has refashioned the course of average female life The independence of women from marriage decried by Moynihan as a pathology at odds with the nations patriarchal order is now a norm By 2013, about half of first time births were to unmarried women for women under thirty, it was almost 60 percent.26 The same year, the National Center for Family and Marriage Research released a study that revealed the marriage rate to be the lowest it had been in over a century.27 Marriage is no longer compulsory, the co director of the NCFMR said in a statement about the study Its just one of an array of options That array of options is pretty stunning compared to the narrow chute of hetero marriage and maternity into which most women were herded just a few decades ago Millions of women now live with, but do not marry, long term partners others move in and out of sequential monogamous relationships live sexually diverse lives live outside of romantic or sexual relationships altogether, both with and without children marry or enter civil unions with members of the same sex or combine some of these options The journey toward legal marriage for gays and lesbians may seem at odds with what looks like a flight from marriage by heterosexuals But in fact, they are part of the same project a dismantling of the institution as it once existedas a rigidly patrolled means by which one sex could exert legal, economic, and sexual power over anotherand a reimagining of it as a flexible union to be entered, ideally, on equal terms Taken together, these shifts, by many measures, embody the worst nightmare of social conservatives a complete rethinking of who women are and who men are and, therefore, also of what family is and who holds dominion within it and outside it The expanded presence of women as independent entities means a redistribution of all kinds of power, including electoral power, that has, until recently, been wielded mostly by men Single Women Voters In 2012, unmarried women made up a remarkable 23 percent of the electorate Almost a quarter of votes were cast by women without husbands, up three points from just four years earlier According to Page Gardner, founder of the Voter Participation Center, in the 2012 presidential election, unmarried women, who have a vested stake in their own economic and reproductive rights, drove turnout in practically every demographic, making up almost 40 percent of the African American population, close to 30 percent of the Latino population, and about a third of all young voters Single women helped put Barack Obama back in the White House they voted for him by 67 to 31 percent, while married women voted for Romney In the 2013 Virginia race for governor, the Democratic candidate beat his Republican rival, carrying women by nine points, but single women by what the New York Times called28 a staggering 42 percentage points Unmarried womens political leanings are not, as has been surmised in some quarters, attributable solely to their racial diversity According to polling firm Lake Research Partners, while white women as a whole voted for Romney over Obama, unmarried white women chose Obama over Romney by a margin of 49.4 percent to 38.9 percent.29 In 2013, columnist Jonathan Last wrote about a study of how women aged twenty five to thirty voted in the 2000 election It turned out, Last wrote in the Weekly Standard, that the marriage rate for these women was a greater influence on vote choice than any other variable measured.30 The connection between single female life and electoral engagement is no wonky secret As one 2014 New York Times story began, The decline of marriage over the last generation has helped create an emerging voting bloc of unmarried women that is profoundly reshaping the American electorate Conservatives are so aware of this that antifeminist pundit Phyllis Schlafly claimed in 2012 that President Obama was working to keep women unmarried by giving away so many social services to them President Obama is simply trying to promote dependency on government hand outs because he knows that is his constituency,31 Schlafly said This is how scary single women are today, and how badly Republican politicians want to lash out at them During the October 2012 presidential debate between Mitt Romney and Barack Obama, when the candidates were asked about how they might stem the tide of gun violence, Romney replied that a major step in curbing the culture of violence in the United States was to tell our kids that before they have babies, they ought to think about getting married to someone Apparently, anyone of the opposite sex will do As the second decade of the twenty first century has worn on, politicians of all stripes, aware of the political power of the unmarried woman yet seemingly incapable of understanding female life outside of a marital context, have come to rely on a metaphor in which American women, no longer bound to men, are binding themselves to government During the lead up to the 2014 midterms, Fox News pundit Jesse Watters, referring to unmarried women as Beyonc Voters, alleged that they depend on government because theyre not depending on their husbands They need things like contraception, health care, and they love to talk about equal pay Meanwhile, some young conservatives at the College Republican National Committee took a less scolding approach, cutting a series of television ads that imagined a single female voter trying on wedding dresses in the spirit of TLCs reality show Say Yes to the Dress, except in the ads, the dress was actually a Republican gubernatorial candidate to whom this would be bride was pledging herself Meanwhile, the liberal leaning Cosmopolitan Magazine launched a Get Out the Vote initiative that included a social mediaspread Save the Date notice for November 4, Election Day It came with the unsubtle message, You and the polls are getting hitched Joel Kotkin, a professor of urban development, argued in The Daily Beast that the power of the single voter is destined to fade, since single people by definition have no heirs,32 while their religious, conservative, counterparts will repopulate the nation with children who will replicate their parents politics, ensuring that conservative, familial oriented values inevitably prevail Kotkins error, of course, is both in assuming that unmarried people do not reproducein fact, they are doing so in ever greater numbersbut also in failing to consider whence the gravitation away from married norms derived A move toward independent life did not simply emerge from a clamshell It was born of generations of dissatisfaction with the inequities of religious, conservative, social practice Why should we believe that children born to social conservatives will not tread a similar path, away from conservative values, as the one walked by generations of traditionally raised citizens before them The impulse toward liberation isnt inoculated against by strict conservative backgrounds its often inculcated by them What all the electoral hand wringing reveals is the seriousness of anxieties about how, exactly, independent women might wield their unprecedented influence, if only they came out to vote in full numbers, which they too often fail to do Unmarried women are among the voters who are hardest to pull to the polls In part because they are often poor, many of them overworked single mothers with multiple commitments, low paying jobs that dont permit them time to stand in line at the voting booth, or women for whom social policy has already failed so badly that they might not even see the point of voting According to Page Gardner, in 2016, For the first time in history, a majority of women voters are projected to be unmarried Yet going into the last presidential election season, nearly 40 percent of them had not registered to vote.33 And yet, even with only a relatively small percentage of them voting, these single American women have already shown that they have the power to change America, in ways that make many people extremely uncomfortable Co eds, Sluts, and Marriage Cures In 2012, a then unmarried Georgetown law student, Sandra Fluke, testified about the insurance regulations being proposed for women buying birth control Flukes argument barely touched on issues of sexual freedom it was instead about money, wages, education, about the rights that women have to live multi faceted livesthe kinds that are now possible, since marriage has become decentralized as the defining experience of female adulthoodwithout being taxed extra to control their reproduction When he tore into Flukes testimony in a lengthy on air rant, conservative radio host Rush Limbaugh couldnt seem to get past his spluttering fury at the fact that she was arguing for her rights to a product that would enable her to have unmonitored amounts of sex Limbaugh turned promptly to eroticized denigration of the independent woman in a way that recalled the treatment of Anita Hill twenty years earlier On his syndicated radio show, Limbaugh called Fluke a slut and a prostitute so much sex, so much sex, so much sex, he repeated, extending his condemnation to envelop Flukes generational cohort, the co eds who hook up with as many partners as they want Whatever, no limits on this Limbaugh said unlimited repeatedly, conveying his unmistakable fury that women had successfully conspired to evade the restraints that marriage and custom used to provide Fluke, and the growing power of other independent women she seemed to represent, was an irritant to these conservatives More than that, they feared, she might be contagious positively pestilential A writer at The American Spectator called Fluke, whom he took care to refer to as Mizz, the model Welfare Queen for the 21st Century and warned of how many thousands of her ilk are graduating this year to enter government jobs or political campaigns They will be spreading their ideas to all within hearing.34 Less than a week after his Fluke attack, Limbaugh was tearing into a book on food politics written by another young woman when he paused to ask on air What is it with all these young, single, white women Watch out for these women, these men were saying They are everywhere And for those unmarried women who are not privileged white law students like Fluke, the ones over whom lawmakers can easily exert punishing power, there is no end to the rhetorical and policy attempts to stuff them back inside a marital box and lock them there The idea that the decline in marriageas opposed to broken social safety networks and economic policies that benefit the wealthy, the white, and the educated over the pooris the source of inequality in our still fundamentally unequal world has lit a fire under Republicans in the early decades of the twenty first century As Florida Republican Marco Rubio has opined, the greatest tool to lift children and families from poverty isnt a government spending program Its called marriage.35 Rubios early competitors for the 2016 Republican nomination included Rick Santorum and Jeb Bush, politicians who have been campaigning on the denigration of single women since the Great Crossover of the mid 1990s In 2013, Mitt Romneys tone on the subject of early marriage became almost mournful, as he reported to graduates of Southern Virginia University during a commencement address there that S ome people could marry, but choose to take time, they say, for themselves Others plan to wait until theyre well into their thirties or forties before they think about getting married Theyre going to miss so much of living, Im afraid.36 This edged toward another arm of sociopolitical and economic anxiety about the growth in population of single women the failure of these women to have enough babies The root cause of most of our problems is our declining fertility rate, wrote columnist Jonathan Last, perhaps not coincidentally the same man who has studied marital status as the biggest determining factor in partisan affiliation, in a Wall Street Journal column pegged to his 2012 book, What to Expect When No Ones Expecting The warning reverberated in many venues, and critics fretted that womens increasing ability to devote portions of their adulthood to things other than marriage and motherhood is diminishing our national prospects The New York Times conservative columnist Ross Douthat wrote a piece entitled, More Babies, Please in which he called the retreat from child rearing a decadence and a spirit that privileges the present over the future and embraces the comforts and pleasures of modernity, while shrugging off the basic sacrifices that built our civilization in the first place Douthat was not specific about whose sacrifices had been so central to the steady repopulation of the nation, but Last himself was much direct Detailing the reasons for the falling number of babies, some of which he took care to call clearly positive, Last wrote of how Women began attending college in equal and then greater numbers than men and how important, women began branching out into careers beyond teaching and nursing Finally, he wrote, the combination of the birth control pill and the rise of cohabitation broke the iron triangle linking sex, marriage and childbearing.37 Economist Nancy Folbre, responding to demographic Chicken Littles in the New York Times, wrote that she knew of no historical evidence that either the productivity or the creativity of a society is determined by the age structure of its population.38 But the anxiety may not have stemmed from historical evidence as much as it did from historical yearning for a time before what Last described as the iron triangle linking women, marriage, and reproduction had been dismantled Whether those who worried were concerned about too many babies or too few babies, women living in poverty or women enjoying power, they all seemed to return to the same conclusion Marriage must be reestablished as the norm, the marker and measure of female existence, against which all other categories of success are weighed The Story of Single Women Is the Story of the Country The funny thing is that all these warnings, diagnoses, and panicseven the most fevered of themarent wholly unwarranted Single women are upending everything their growing presence has an impact on how economic, political, and sexual power is distributed between the genders The ability for women to live unmarried is having an impact on our electoral politics The vast numbers of single women living in the United States are changing our definitions of family, and, in turn, will have an impact on our social policies The intensity of the resistance to these women is rooted in the perhaps unconscious comprehension that their expanded power signals a social and political rupture as profound as the invention of birth control, as the sexual revolution, as the abolition of slavery, as womens suffrage and the feminist, civil rights, gay rights, and labor movements Crucially, single women played a huge part in all of those earlier ruptures Though it may feel as though the growing numbers of unmarried women and the influence they wield have shaken the nation only in the past five decades, in fact, the story of single womens nation shaping power is threaded into the story of the nation itself Women, perhaps especially those who have lived untethered from the energy sucking and identity sapping institution of marriage in its older forms, have helped to drive social progress of this country since its founding.PRAISE FOR ALL THE SINGLE LADIES A Best Books of 2016 So Far select by Entertainment Weekly Fascinating, entertaining, surprisingand heartening A brilliant book that is also warm, funny, and a pleasure to read Katha Pollitt Traister is a triple threat essayist, journalist, and polemicist bringing a seismic shift to light, hunting down its implications, and showing how it changes politics, and how policy needs to change to reflect it Her book demands not just reading but discussion and debate Boris Kachka, Vulture A singularly triumphant work of women presented in beautiful formation Keenly mindful of race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status Traister is both deliberate and conversant in her language of inclusionAs impressively well researched as All the Single Ladiesisits the personal narratives drawn from than 100 interviews she conducted with all manner of women that make the book not just an informative read but also an entirely engaging one Los Angeles Times A well researched, deeply informative examination of womens bids for independence, spanning centuriesTraister provides a thoughtful culling of history to help bridge the gap between, on the one hand, glib depictions of single womanhood largely focused on sexual escapades and, on the other, grave warnings that female independence will unravel the very fabric of the country she brings a welcome balance of critique and personal reflection to a conversation that is often characterized by advocacy and moral policing than honest discovery All The Single Ladies is arriving just in time This is an informative and thought provoking book for anyone not just the single ladies who wants to gain a great understanding of this pivotal moment in the history of the United States New York Times Book Review Editors Choice Powerful and convincingwere better off reading Rebecca Traister on women, politics, and America than pretty much anyone else Traister is one of the nations smartest and most provocative feminist voices The Boston Globe The enormous accomplishment of Traisters book is to show that the ranks of women electing for nontraditional liveshave also improved the lots of women who make traditional choices, blowing open the institutions of marriage and parenthoodThis rich portrait of our most quietly explosive social force makes it clear that the ladies still have plenty of work to do Slate A monumental study of the political, economic, social, and sexual consequences of the rise of unmarried women New Republic Lucid and well researched Traister vividly illustrates the collective power of single women in guiding legal, economic, and social progress and in asserting themselves as citizensfull citizensin ways that American men have for generations A chapter on female friendships satisfyingly conveys the complexity of a significant, and often dismissed, relationship The New Yorker Personal and relatable Traisters assessment of single womens sex livesis so balanced and ordinary sounding that it becomes extraordinary in a world whereTinder is supposedly bringing a datingapocalypseIll swipe right on that message any day Washington Post Though Traister is no longer one of us, she retains her memories and her empathy, as well as her feminist commitmentsDrawing on, historical and contemporary sources, as well as her own reporting, she has produced a wide ranging, insistently optimistic analysis of the role of single women in American society Chicago Tribune I cant begin to count the number of conversations Ive had in my adult life about my lack of enthusiasm to marry Thankfully, with the publication ofRebecca Traisters All the Single Ladies Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation, I can stop explaining and buy her book for all the busybodies in my happily unmarried life Traister blends history, reportage and personal memoir to propose that the notion of marriage in American life has been and will be written by unmarried women The Guardian US Traisters illuminating history of women who havent put a ring on it, whether by choice or by chance, is smartly placed in a larger historical context and enriched by compelling personal narratives Entertainment Weekly, Best Books of 2016 So Far select Traister is one of the sharpest journalists writing about feminism today, and her look into the link between eras with large numbers of unmarried women and periods of drastic social change is absolutely riveting It turns out the historyof unmarried women inthis country is a fascinatingone, whichTraister recounts incompulsively readabledetail, combining factswith personal storiesfrom single ladiesacross racial and financialspectrums Whatsleft after she joyfullydismantles conservativearguments aboutthe death of wifely servitudeis hope Ring onit or not, the pathsopen to women todayare varied and bright Entertainment Weekly In this intelligent book, Traister looks at the many reasons for choosing a patch that would have been cultural and economic suicide 50 years ago She wants single women to recognize themselves as a political force and to celebrate unmarried life for what it can be an excellent option People Magazine Wonderfully inclusive, examining single women from all walks of lifeworking , middle , and upper class women women of color and white women queer and straight onesWith All the Single Ladies, Traister brings her trademark intelligence and wit to bear, interspersing her own experiences and observations with dozens of interviews with women all over the country, plus historical context, from so called Boston marriages the nineteenth century name for women who lived together and the Bront sisters to Murphy Brown and Sex and the City Elle Magazine No husband, NPIn All The Single Ladies, an exhaustive examination of independent women and how they shaped the world we live and date in today, Rebecca Traister explodes the centuries old notion that mirage is compulsory to living a happy, fulfilled life and reveals the inestimable power of being blissfully unattached Cosmopolitan All The Single Ladies is essential, careful, bold, and rigorous its a warning and a celebration, and I loved it Jezebel All The Single Ladies has the potential to become a seminal text on female identity in the WestTraister expertly paints a modern portrait of American life and how we got here, with an intersectional approach that accounts for class, race, and sexual orientation Even impressive is how Traister pushes a feminist agenda without the book ever feeling like it has an agenda, or that its pointing the finger at the reader to make him or her feel guilty VICE A well written and unabashedly feminist analysis of the history and current situation of single women in America Newsday Exploring all aspects of single lifesocial, economic, racial, and sexualTraisters comprehensive volume, sure to be vigorously discussed, is truly impressive in scope and depth while always managing to be eminently readable and thoughtful Booklist starred review Traister is a thoughtful journalistThis fast paced, fascinating book will draw in fans of feminism, social sciences, and U.S history, similar to Gail Collinss When Everything Changed Library Journal Incorporating a lively slew of perspectives of single ladies past and present, Traister conducts a nuanced investigation into the sexual, economic, and emotional lives of women in America and the opportunities available when marriage is no longer the measure of female existence.Traister is funny and fair in how she deals with the prevalent stereotypes and remaining stigmas attached to being an unmarried woman in societyan invigorating study of single women in America with refreshing insight into the real life of the so called spinster Publishers Weekly Cogent and provocativea persuasive case for why unmarried women have grown into a potent political and social forceReaders will also appreciate Traisters willingness to recount, with candor and humor, experiences in her own life that fit into the larger national story This is a fascinating bookand an important one Bookmark Politics Prose Blog Part social and cultural history, part anthropological and journalistic investigation, part memoir, and total investigation into the phenomenon and political power of single womanhood Flavorwire Timely and importanta significant addition to the literature of sociology and womens studiesClearly this book belongs right up there with those by Gloria Steinem, Gail Collins, and other feminist writers who shine a light on contemporary life as few others can New York Journal of BooksPRAISE FOR REBECCA TRAISTER Visionary The New York Times Book Review One of the most powerful voices in a new generation of American feminist writers Walter Russell Mead, Foreign Affairs The most brilliant voice on feminism in this country Anne Lamott, author of Bird by Bird A clear eyed, whip smart observer of the political scene Daphne Merkin, author of The Fame Lunches Brilliant Maureen Corrigan, NPRs Fresh Air Clever, caustic, and wickedly funny Slate.com The heir to the tradition of Mary McCarthy and Joan Didion Eric Alterman, author of The Cause Provocative and insightful Curtis Sittenfeld, author of American Wife Every single Yahoo account was hacked billion in all Oct , Every that existed August affected by an epic hack Wikimedia is a global movement whose mission to bring free educational content the world Through various projects, chapters, and support structure of non profit Wikimedia Foundation, strives about which every human being can freely share sum all knowledge Welcome Welcome Passion Search Online Dating Site We are online dating site with million singles seeking date Browse our personals now it s FREE Join ACL Launchpad E mail Password Reset password Contact Sign custom domain Single Level Homes North Raleigh Single Raleigh Enjoy this search for level homes Carolina real estate Here you will be able sale Wakefield Wake Forest MLS Singles America Match Official Site surveyed over from ages, ethnicities, incomes, walks life across nation help friends at Research Now super smart people like Dr Helen Fisher Justin R Garcia The result Singles most comprehensive study on EVER Or least until next year Singled Out How Are Stereotyped People who changing face Did know More than percent adults divorced, widowed, or have always been EL Ended Amplifier DIY Japanese only weekend log file show my data if would see Let me EL DIY BQ Daniel Speaker Chile Orbit Outlet Programmable Hose Faucet Timer Orbit Timer, Standard Packaging Garden Outdoor Rebecca Traister Good Mad Rebecca writer large New York magazine contributing editor Elle A National Magazine Award finalist, she has written women politics, media, entertainment feminist perspective Republic Salon also contributed Nation Observer Times Wikipedia born American author She currently Cut, rtraister Twitter Four WashPost colleagues I spent last several days talking Christine Blasey Ford her husband Russell They initially wanted flee country once they thought Kavanaugh might get named Supreme Court power men s agoGood Mad Revolutionary Power Women Anger Simon Schuster Hardcover, Audio eBook formats, available via Story produced Aria Archive NYMag pm Leader Persistence Massachusetts senator emerged past few weeks as de facto leader Democratic Party, candidate moment Misses Mark agoIn new book, invokes rage unify battle against But mad prove divisive, too One unfunny witticisms going around during Hillary Clinton Feminist talks female rage hours agoTraister traces history back suffragist abolitionist movements th century, reframing heroes along way Rosa Parks presented us stoic, exhausted Salon News, Politics, Business, Technology Culture writes Big Girls Don t Cry Election Changed Everything Free Press Opinion Fury Is Political Weapon And Need Sep author, recently, Anger, essay On Trump, Patriarchy, Men Fear agoChris Hayes had night talk love phenomenal felt lucky read before hearing Thursday, just object lesson everything write Wants You Stop Suppressing Your agoRebecca Your Rage What we change receives anger Becca Andrews October AM Says Should Stay Angry Changing rules hard, cost suffer, relationships altered damaged, emotionally difficult, taxing project embark Interview Traister, Author Of All Mar Ladies, says declining marriage rates among adult less institution choices today Serena Williams Penalized Showing US Open By Photo Kena Betancur AFP Getty Images don care much tennis Serena accused violating All Traister explores role throughout modern history, discussing unmarried worked abolitionists, fought voting rights, wrote literary classics, kept reminds that shows what happens when unswallow Why This Happening explains why agoREBECCA TRAISTER So, actual story how came frame strange one because many years, ve journalist, writing politics culture Visits Ghost of journalist leading voice internet, built career chronicling political lives thoughtfully themes, Good From bestselling Ladies whom Anne Lamott called brilliant feminism comes vital, incisive exploration into transformative its ability transcend Sixth sixthandi Mad, Video Amanpour Company PBS joins program discuss playing out hearing, why powerful Page Republic Articles Why Can Break Parent Trap ever having babies peak their careers Review latest makes case honoring everywhere coming backlash sexual Nov week episode podcast, Have Ask, spoke books Similar authors follow media Nation, Observer, Times, thecut Ross Douthat Debate Post Weinstein Moment Lessons conversation liberal versus conservative pigs, structural ways address harassment, some feel compelled behave October Tracee Ellis influential important writers, social transformed laws, society thinking It sharply impacted leaders broader public perception leaders, both women, left NPR surveys election changed Darin Strauss absorbs classmate death, Hilary Publisher Simon ElleA People WNYC Public Women, discusses message possible run, Shavelson View archive articles ahead Need adapted Mark Rage Fear said Tuesday Saturday Open final Review Bloomberg All the Single Ladies: Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation (English Edition)

 

    • All the Single Ladies: Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation (English Edition)
    • 1.4
    • 82
    • Format Kindle
    • 369 pages
    • Rebecca Traister
    • Anglais
    • 07 August 2016

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